Check the indicative pronouns for their declension. But "tam" - means "there" and it is a different thing.
THIS is "ten", "ta", "to".
THESE is "ci", "te"
- ten - male singular in Nominative - f.ex. "ten mężczyzna" [this man];
- ta - female singular in Nominative - f.ex. "ta kobieta" [this woman]
- to - neutral singular in Nominative - f.ex. "to dziecko" [this child]
- ci - male plural in Nominative - f.ex. "ci mężczyźni" [these men]
- te - not-male plural in Nominative - f.ex. "te kobiety" [these women], "te dzieci" [these children].
THAT is "tamten", "tamta", "tamto" or less used "ów", "owa", "owo"
THOSE is "tamci", "tamte" or less used "owi", "owe"
A bit more explanation
In the Prea-Indo-European language there existed pronouns to describe 3 possible distances to an object. In Middle English they were: this; that; yonder, but in modern English they were reduced to this; that; that. In Middle Polish they were: ten (ta, to); ów (owa, owo); tamten (tamta, tamto) , but in modern Polish were reduced to ten; ten; tamten and "ów (owa, owo)" became almost a synonym for "tamten (tamta, tamto)". As you see, in English, the one that was in the middle "that" took the function of the furtherest "yonder". In Polish the closest one "ten (ta, to)" was extended to the middle. See again:
- this; that; yonder -> this; that; that
- ten; ów; tamten -> ten; ten; tamten
This is the reason why often what is in Polish "ten (ta, to)" (the closest one) is translated to English "that".
Also, please remember, that in Polish we have a lot more pronouns than exist in English. I have also linked a Polish Wiktionary page about Polish pronouns , but you may also like to take a look at the English Wiktionary page about Polish pronouns - but remember, that both these pages are actually incomplete.
Łukasz (br0d4), this explanation (and also the one below) is very helpful, thank you! I find the history of languages fascinating - I studied it at university myself - so this is great stuff to read. However, for those of us using the mobile app, at least on some platforms, when the text of a hyperlink is changed from the original address - as you did three times in your first post above, and twice in your second comment below - we are not able to follow it. It essentially becomes a dead link. And I would really like to check these examples, so as to better understand the topic.
Would someone be so kind as to copy and paste the hyperlinks in Łukasz's first comment above, for us mobile users to be able to follow? The links in the second comment as well would be even better. Thank you so much! :-)
Thank you for your nice words.
These are the links in the first post:
- Język polski - zaimki https://pl.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aneks:J%C4%99zyk_polski_-_zaimki
- Polish_pronouns https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Polish_pronouns
And in the second:
- PWN Słownik języka polskiego pod red. W. Doroszewskiego: "to" http://sjp.pwn.pl/doroszewski/to;5507788.html
Do you know the difference between "oni" and "one"?
Oni: Ci- these (men) Tamci - those (men)
Te- these (women) tamte-those (women)
oni- masculine personal nouns, and groups of people that include at least one male person
one- not masculine personal nouns, groups that include female people only