"Does he know this woman?"
Translation:Czy on zna tę kobietę?
I am so lost. I was getting it and everyjthing clicked and now nothing clicks on which forms to use and when. I think the more i read comments the more i get confused because i dont really understand accusative, genitive etc terms. Like if someone says "well its accusative so you use x" means nothing to me.
I think you should start with the general concept of grammatical case - you may look into https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cnF1ycgelUY and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_case , then read a bit about the cases in Polish https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_grammar#Declension or more here https://mowicpopolsku.com/polish-grammar/cases/ (this page is only a set of links to sub-pages - there is a lot to read there). Here is also an article about the Genitive case (probably one that is the most difficult to use) https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/16569658
If you know someone, something - the object/person you know should be in Accusative case. And always, when a noun is accompanied by a pronoun (f.ex.: ten, ta, to, tamten, tamta, tamto - or any other) - the case and gender of pronoun has to match the case and gender of noun.
- Znam tego mężczyznę (masc., animated) - I know that man.
- Znam ten dom (masc., inanimated) - I know this house
- Znam tę kobietę (fem.) - I know that woman
- Znam to dziecko (neuter) - I know this child
- Znam tych ludzi (masc. animate, plural) - I know these men, these people
- Znam te domy (masc. inanimate, plural) - I know these houses.
- Znam te dzieci (not masc, animate, plural) - I know these children.
And the same for tamten (tamta, tamto) - that / those
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There is also a great site with all grammar forms of polish words: http://sgjp.pl/ - in this case see http://sgjp.pl/leksemy/#148711/ten . The site contains over 450.000 entries (and counting), more than just any other dictionary of Polish, alas it has only very short explanations thereof. But for explanations you may look up in https://sjp.pwn.pl/
From the point of view of English language they are determiners (although I do not think, that they are used as adjectives).
it depends which "ta" you mean. (you seem to not have Polish letters).
ta declines, in this sentence you need accusative after "zna", so it is "tę kobietę"
If you have Polish friends or relatives, you may have heard "tą kobietę", it is common mistake that in new dictionaries is stated as "acceptable in informal speech"
The thing under E is called "ogonek", even in English. That means "little tail".
"kobieta" is the basic, Nominative form. "kobietę" is Accusative, which is used for the direct object of the sentence. -ę is the usual Accusative ending for feminine nouns (which almost always end with -a in Nominative).
Your final question is a bit too general to answer here, I'm afraid, but you may take a look here: https://mowicpopolsku.com/polish-grammar/cases/
Is "Zna tę kobietę?" also an acceptable expression for "Does he know this woman"?
In everyday speech, yes.
And if so, how is it different from the one with "Czy"?
In questions the word "czy" is optional, but if you skip it, then only by the intonation you can make it obvious whether the sentence is a question or a statement. And the intonation rules are a bit different in English than in Polish, so I would rather suggest not to skip it.
But the word "czy" has also other function, when it translates to "if" or "whether", and then it should not be skipped:
Powiedz mi proszę, czy to zdanie jest pytaniem czy twierdzeniem. - Please tell me if the sentence is a question or a statement.
Nie wiem, czy to zdanie jest pytaniem czy twierdzeniem. - I do not know whether the sentence is a question or a statement.