"Ges i" is first person singular --I got.
"Gaeth e/hi" is third person singular--he/she got.
They are both softly-mutated forms of the preterite (past) of the verb "cael."
cafodd e/o - the unmutated form is better in this context, and cafodd is a slightly more formal form than caeth/gaeth.
Oh really? Thanks. Of course it must be Literary Welsh, in which case I suppose the unmutated form would be preferable to the c>g mutation more limited to speech (Fe ges i/Mi gaeth o). I suppose in formal Welsh it ble would be preferred to lle as well.