"The man likes his new car."
Translation:Mężczyźnie podoba się jego nowy samochód.
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They differ in meaning, frankly. "podoba się" is mostly about an aesthetic impression, and it's good for things that are new. "lubi" suggests a stronger bond. So yeah, he can already have a bond with his new car, especially that we don't know what exactly does 'new' mean.
But it wouldn't make much sense to say "Lubię ten samochód" about a car that you're looking at in the store. Unless you mean that you're a big fan of this particular model.
No, and yes.
No, because technically putting the pronoun at the beginning is putting it in a 'stressed position', so you'd need to use the emphasized form "mnie". "Mnie podoba się ten samochód".
Yes, because using "mi" instead of "mnie" is probably one of the most common errors made by native speakers, and this time I have to say that this includes yours truly. I also automatically say "mi". But technically it's wrong.
This may be more helpful to Polish natives actually :D But a good way of figuring out if you need "mnie" or not is to change the grammatical person from "ja" to "ty". People may make mistakes and say "Mi podoba się ten samochód", but no native should say "Ci podoba się ten samochód" for "You like this car". They will use the emphasized form "Tobie", which also means that you need "Mnie" in the first person.
So in Polish "się" always has to be after the verb? "Mężczyźnie się podoba jego nowy samochód." would be incorrect?
Sorry, I ususally construct the sentences as it is natural to me in Czech and we put "se" (=się) in front of the verb if there is the subject or object before it...
Compare these two English sentences:
I've looked up your suggestion.
I've looked up it.
Now, the second one is obviously wrong, even though we only replaced 'your suggestion' with the pronoun 'it' and kept the same word order.
The Polish example is similar. The position between podoba and się is unaccented, so a clitic (e.g. unaccented pronoun) should be put there, but not a noun.
The word order "podoba się mężczyźnie" may not be 'wrong', but it is pretty unusual.
"swój" is wrong in this sentence. "swój" has to refer to the subject of the sentence, but with the construction of "podoba się", the grammatical subject of the Polish sentence is "his new car", not "the man". So "swój" would mean something like "the car's car" - or maybe it's better to say that it wouldn't mean anything.
If it was "Mężczyzna lubi swój nowy samochód", then "swój" is the way to go. But not with "podoba się".