"The man likes his new car."
Translation:Mężczyźnie podoba się jego nowy samochód.
it is in dative.
and it is because "podobać się" means "to be liked".
so "new car" is subject, and a man is an object.
And podobać się needs object in Dative.
so the man is "liked" by a car? how can that be. it is a machine, how can it have feelings?
The construction is more of "The car is pleasing to the man". In that way the car is the subject.
You can have also another way of saying "to like", connected to the taste:
"Smakuje mi ta kanapka" - This sandwich is tasty to me. Also, the sandwich is the subject here.
we have the same in German: das Sandwich schmeckt mir, mir ist Objekt in Dativ mir =me smakuje =schmeckt
Is just "Mężczyźnie podoba się nowy samochód" all right? Literally it's just "the man likes the new car", but is it reasonable to leave out the "jego" here?
So in Polish "się" always has to be after the verb? "Mężczyźnie się podoba jego nowy samochód." would be incorrect?
Sorry, I ususally construct the sentences as it is natural to me in Czech and we put "se" (=się) in front of the verb if there is the subject or object before it...
I don't think that "się" always has to be after the verb. One exception which comes to my mind is the group of questions such as "Jak się masz?" and "Jak się Pan(i) ma?".
It's movable. Generally both variants should be correct, sometimes one of them sounds kinda off... and for me, your sentence here sounds kinda weird, I have to say. I'm not able to pinpoint why.
No. It's Accusative, it's masculine, and non-animate. For non-animate masculine nouns, the Accusative is the same as Nominative. So "swój samochód".
That's because in a construction like that (Мне нравится) it's the car that's the subject of the sentence. It cannot be "swój", because that would mean it's the car's car, not the man's car. Which doesn't really make sense.
It should be: mężczyzna lubi swój nowy samochód or ... swoje nowe auto. That's correct form in Polish mate
Much easier to use "lubi", although it defeats the point of the exercise by not using a reflexive verb. But, which is better/in more common usage?
They differ in meaning, frankly. "podoba się" is mostly about an aesthetic impression, and it's good for things that are new. "lubi" suggests a stronger bond. So yeah, he can already have a bond with his new car, especially that we don't know what exactly does 'new' mean.
But it wouldn't make much sense to say "Lubię ten samochód" about a car that you're looking at in the store. Unless you mean that you're a big fan of this particular model.