what audible differences are there between Amsterdam Dutch and standard Dutch (ABN)?
I've been listening to Dutch accent videos to try to figure this out, but at this point in my study, I can't differentiate between any of the accents. All I know so far is that "nee" in standard Dutch is pronounced like "nij" in Amsterdam Dutch. Does anyone have some insight about this?
From my personal experiences visting the Netherlands, as long as you know the word, it won't matter as much how you or others pronounce it. You will still be able to understand it and it doesn't matter if you can't distinguish the regional accents. That's like saying a British accent is a whole other language than an American accent, but infact you can understand them just as well. When I visited various cities in the Netherlands, the accents didn't vary that much moving from North to South. I hope this helps.
As a native Dutch speaker, I would agree with thenick. The differences between Amsterdams and ABN (algemeen beschaafd nederlands (generally civilized Dutch)) are fairly small and mostly in pronunciation. A native dutch person will be able to place a person in certain regions of the country just based on speech, but that is only by lots of experience. When learning the language this is not necessary. difference between Amsterdams and ABN in my opinion is more like the difference between Texan speak and a more northern state in the US.
In the introduction of this wikipedia page some sound differences are mentioned: https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amsterdams_%28dialect%29. Amsterdam Dutch also has words that will not be found in standard Dutch.