"Which chapter do we have to read?"
Translation:Który rozdział musimy przeczytać?
Can the prze prefix be put on other verbs to modify the verb in a similar way?
In some cases yes, but you need to be cautious, Eg:
- "słuchać" = to listen to
- "przesłuchać" sth. = to listen to all of sth. OR to listen to fragments of sth.
"przesłuchać" sb. = to interrogate sb.
"oglądać" = to watch sth.
"przeglądać" = 1) to review sth. 2) to scan sth. 3) to browse sth. 4) to look through sth
"chodzić" = to walk
"przechodzić" = 1) to pass by 2) to pass through 3) to cross 4) to undergo 5) to switch
"iść" = to go (by feet)
"przejść" = 1) to pass 2) go through 3) to go over 4) to come across 5) to excel (oneself), to surpass
"widzieć" = to see
"przewidzieć" = 1) to foresee 2) to predict 3) to anticipate 4) to prefigure 5) to stipulate
"brać" = to take
- "przebrać" = 1) to change clothes 2) to dress sb. up 3) to cherry-pick sth. 4) to pick and choose 5) to sort out
- "przebrać się" = 1) to disguise 2) to get changed
- "przebierać" = 1) to twiddle (fingers, feet, something in hand), to tap one's fingers, to shuffle one's feet 2) to pick and choose
Thanks to both of you, but this is a bit daunting. I guess I'm looking for a pattern, where prze- modifies verbs in an analogous way. For example,"re-" modifies verbs in English in an analogous way. (re-do means to do again, re-make means to make again, etc.)
"prze-" seems to do a lot of varied, seemingly unrelated modifications. Does that sound right?
There is a whole group of prefixes serving to change the aspect of verb from Imperfective to Perfective, and "prze-" is one of them. In general "prze-" means: across, over, through, thoroughly, in order, to the end, through and through, from one state to another, anew, overly; this corresponds to the Latin prefix "trans-"
There is a whole chapter on that in "A Grammar of Contemporary Polish" by Oscar E. Swan - the above is based on an excerpt from chapter 11 of this book.
EDIT there are, by the way, some synonymic words with "prze-" and "trans-" prefixes:
- nosić = 1) to carry something personally, without any particular purpose or destination 2) to be wearing something
- przenosić = 1) to carry something personally from one place to another 2) to move something that is not physical (like move interest from one item to another or move the headquarters from one city to another)
- wozić = to carry by means of a vehicle
- przewozić = to carry by means of a vehicle (all the way) from one point to another
transportować = to transport
tłumaczyć = 1) to explain 2) to interpret (Imperfective verb) 3) to translate in writing (Imperfective verb)
przetłumaczyć = to have translated (all of it)
formować = 1) to form 2) to shape
- przeformować = to change shape
- transformować = to transform
For many verbs, yes.
Prefixed verbs are a big part of Polish. There are a couple of different prefixes that change the meaning of verbs in various ways. Kinda like phrasal verbs in English, except in Polish they're one word.
So why, in this sentence, is the correct word to use, "czytać"? Wouldn't the assignment be to read through the entire chapter?
Strange... it seems that the sentence has been changed to "przeczytać", but it didn't save. I fixed it now.
"czytać" is not totally wrong, but rather strange... maybe if we are reading in class and we know that we won't really finish reading the whole chapter during the lesson.
If you want to know about charachteristics of the chapter (lenght, interesting or borring etc) then you can use 'jaki'.
If you want to know the chapter's number - almost always the case - then you use 'który'.
See "Interrogative and relative pronouns: kto, co, jaki, który"; more details in Polish version.
Although I believe some speakers might actually use „jaki” here to mean „który” (maybe even myself), it would not be the most proper Polish.
The hints seem to be wrong for "have to read". They indicate "przeczytali" and other past tense forms rather than constructions with "musimy".