Using «пла́тье» to mean 'clothes' is pretty old-fashioned. Thou wouldst sound strange if thou usest it.
«Платяно́й» doesn't sound as old-fashioned as «пла́тье» meaning 'clothes', but it still sound pretty bookish to me. I tend to say «шкаф для оде́жды» instead of «платяно́й шкаф».
(Theoretically, there's also «одёжный», but it's not often used and sounds too colloquial.)
I would actually use «гардероб» instead of «платяно́й шкаф», which literally means "wardrobe" (in both meanings of that word in English). But I agree, «платяно́й шкаф» is still acceptable: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B4%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B1_%28%D1%88%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%84%29
In English, the noun "dress" can mean:
1. a full-length (shoulder down to thigh or lower) feminine outer garment
2. attire - not gender-specific and usually in idiomatic phrases such as "fancy dress" (formal wear or attire for men and women), or "casual dress" (for men and women). This refers to the style of the attire, not to a particular garment.