"Does she want an apple?"
Translation:Ydy hi eisiau afal?
Are we not allowed to say 'mae hi'n eisiau afel?' with an intonation that implies a question?
No, firstly because "eisiau/isio" doesn't take "yn", secondly to use something as a direct question you must use the question forms of verbs. "Mae hi eisiau afal?!" might be used to show shock and disbelief at her wanting an apple, but it could not be used to express a question.
moyn is a verb-noun, so it needs a linking 'n/yn:
- Ydy hi'n moyn afal? - Does she want an apple?
In very casual speech people will sometimes drop the 'n/yn, but then they are likely to to be using other informal constructions as well.
No. If you wanted to be more formal, you might use a different pattern which would use oes...?:
- Oes arni hi eisiau afal? or similar,
but that would be unusual in day-to-day colloquial settings.
I entered "Yw hi'n moyn afal?", and it was rejected.
It's happy enough with "moyn", which comes more naturally to me than "eisiau", but it is insisting on "ydy" instead of "yw", i.e. "Ydy hi'n moyn afal?"
I was under the impression that "yw e" and "yw hi" are valid forms of "is he...?" and "is she...?", at least in south Wales, and I don't understand why it is being ruled incorrect here. What have I misunderstood?
The course notes explain this. We recommend going through them before starting each new section.
Ydy...? is used to start questions in this pattern, whereas * Yw...? is not. Elsewhere in the sentence yw/ydy are completely equivalent.
You may occasionally come across * Yw...? being used to start a question, but it is not standard.
Use sy in this sentence. How would it be done and which dialect uses sy?
sy is not a dialect word. On this introductory course we do not really address the various Welsh dialects except for a very few examples that are widely seen and heard.
You could use sy if you wanted to ask a different but related question in which you are asking if 'she' in particular wants the apple, perhaps as opposed to, say, 'him'. To emphasise 'she' it is put at the start of the question:
- Hi sy eisiau afal? Neu fe? - Is it her/she who wants an apple? Or him?
This pattern is covered elsewhere in the course.