I believe that сосед also means roommate with the по комнату omitted. Is this usage too colloquial to be accepted as an answer?
"Сосед" has many meanings. Depending on context it could be a neighbor, a roommate, a cellmate, a colleague who works in the same office, a classmate with whom you share a desk, etc.
But anyway сосед is not always a roommate, if we want to specify the type of a neighbor, we say: сосед по квартире/комнате/дому etc.
I translated as «Наш сосед – студент», and it pointed that I have a typo in my answer. The only difference I found between my answer and the correct answer was the «–» against «-». Am I overlooking something? If that is actually the only difference, then can someone kindly teach me what is the difference between both signs? I thought that the longer sign was the correct one... Thanks in advance
Nope, they are never interchangeable. Студент is a person who completed school, now attending colledge-level education or professional education for a speciality.
In Russia, you would generally find them in one of the following:
- университет or институт; sometimes академия: colledge-level education (if you are in the U.S.). We also have Высшая школа экономики, a fairly new but rapidly growing university
- колледж, техникум
Legally, there are just four types of organisations: those working in pre-school education, in school education, in general professional education and colledge-level professional education. Still, the organisations have names.
Yes, it applies to schoolchildren.
It also means a person taught by someone superior in skill (their "teacher, master") or a follower of someone's teachings (spiritual being the most obvious case).