Latin for Duolingo: Verbs Present Tense 2, Lesson 1
Welcome back to Latin for Duolingo. If you would like to catch up with previous lessons, you can find a directory of lessons, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at these links:
- Directory of Lessons
- Vocabulary List
- Memrise course for vocabulary
- Memrise course with sentences created by zsocipuszmak
- Previous lesson, Numbers
It has been some time since the first series of Present Tense Verbs lessons. They introduce common verbs in their classified categories, known as conjugations. Here are links to those basic lessons: First Conjugation, Second Conjugation, Third Conjugation, Fourth Conjugation. I strongly recommend reviewing these verbs we have already introduced, because it will make it easier to recognize the common patterns you will see in other verbs.
In this second series of lessons on present tense verbs, I will introduce high-frequency Latin verbs; some of them fit into one of the four conjugations but may have special rules for use, but many are irregular verbs with unique conjugations. You are already quite familiar with the most common irregular verb: the being verb, sum.
We’ve learned “scio = know” but when you talk about knowing people, a different verb is used, and the endings will look different because it’s in perfect tense, which uses the 3rd principal part, but still equivalent to the English present tense. Some of the irregular verbs this lesson are frequently used with infinitives, which we won’t study until later, so those sentences will be very short and basic -- but I did throw in a few sentences with infinitives if you want to see what they would be like.
signifer, signiferi = standard-bearer
signum, i = sign, standard
nosco, noscere, novi, notus (3)(used in perfect tense) = become acquainted with, know
(also cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitus (3)(used in perfect tense) = learn, recognize, know)
nescio, nescire, nescivi, nescitus (4)(negative form of scio) = do not know, am ignorant
fero, ferre, tuli, latus (irreg.) = bear, bring, carry
(also adfero/affero, adferre, attuli, allatus (irreg.) = bring to, deliver, carry)
possum, posse, potui (irreg.)(normally used with infinitive) = am able, can
Lucia et Gaius diem dicunt. = Lucia and Gaius set a date. (literally, say a day.)
Diem et horam dico. = I name/set up a day and an hour. Nomen tuum nescio. = I don’t know your name.
Marcus nescit. = Marcus does not know.
Scisne? = Do you know?
Cur nescis? = Why don’t you know?
Viam nescimus. = We don’t know the road/way.
Responsum nesciunt. = They do not know the answer.
Lucia puerum novit. = Lucia knows the boy.
Is eam novit. = He knows her.
Luciam novi. = I know Lucia.
Marcum non (cog)novi. = I do not know Marcus.
Novistine Gaium? = Do you know Gaius?
Eos (cog)novimus. = We know them.
Omnes filium meum noverunt. = Everyone knows my son.
Lucia et Paula magistram cognoverunt. = Lucia and Paula know the teacher.
“Potesne?” “Ita, possum.” = “Can you?” “Yes, I can.”
Gaius non potest. = Gaius is not able.
Possumus, sed vos non potestis. = We can, but you can’t.
Liberi non possunt. = The children are not able.
I realize these not very satisfying sentences. As an example of how infinitive is used in Latin, here are a few more complete ones, but we’ll study infinitives later on more fully:
Liberi ludere possunt. = The children can play.
Pater coquere potest. = Dad can cook.
Cenam coquere possum. = I can cook dinner.
Claves invenire non possumus. = We can’t find the keys.
Potesne/ potestisne venire? = Can you come?
Puellae ambulare et currere possunt. = The girls can walk and run.
Cibum ad mensam fero. = I bring the food to the table.
Librum mihi fers. = You bring me a book.
Paula cibum fert; Marcus vinum fert. = Paula brings the food; Marcus brings the wine.
Miles signum (aquilam) fert. = The soldier carries the standard. (sometimes called the eagle, this was the battle emblem of a legion. It was considered a great honor and responsibility to carry it).
Signifer est. = He is the standard-bearer.
(n.b. (or perhaps cf.) many related words in Latin-derived English: Lucifer, crucifer, Christopher, aquifer, vociferous, fertile, as well as the verbs offer, confer, defer, proffer, infer, prefer, refer. And that’s just ones that use the first principal part!)
Dona adferimus. = We are bearing/bringing gifts.
Quid adfertis? = What are you bringing?
Non multam pecuniam secum ferunt. = They are not carrying a lot of money with them.
More verbs next time; thank you (vobis gratias ago) for following Latin for Duolingo. Bonam fortunam!
Next lesson: Verbs Present 2 lesson 2
Why not "Novistine Gaium?" Is it optional to use the -ne particle? And if so, is there any difference in meaning between this version and your original?
As always, thank you so much for your work!
My mistake...mea culpa! Tibi gratias ago. It's good to have another pair of eyes on these sentences.