"Người đàn ông"
Similar, I think. I also remember reading recently that the pattern 'classifier + bare noun' has a completely different interpretation in Chinese and Vietnamese. I think in Vietnamese CL + NOUN gives the interpretation 'the NOUN', whereas in Chinese it gives 'a NOUN'. Confusing! I also vaguely remember hearing that this applies only to Mandarin, whereas Cantonese might pattern more with Vietnamese in this area. On even shakier ground there though. Can get references if you want.
"...whereas in Chinese it gives 'a NOUN'" - More or less, although measure words are usually only used when giving a number. It's possible to translate "a/an" with "一 + measure word + noun", but that'a more like "one" than "a/an". Measure words can also work in conjunction with demonstratives (this/that)
But I suspect the concept of groups of the same 'type' of something receiving the same measure word applies to modifiers in Vietnamese (which is what I think you were getting at in your original post).
I think it'd be helpful if there was a description of what a classifier is in the notes, since it's a concept completely alien to English speakers. I'm somewhat familiar with the concept because I've studied Chinese and I figured out it's the same as measure words in Chinese from Legatrix's description; but for someone for whom Vietnamese is their first Asian language, "the classifier for human being" doesn't give any hints about what a classifier actually is and how "người" should be used, and it's not an easy concept to figure out on your own.
The notes DO mention "except for classifiers which will be taught later", but that's not much help here (especially if you don't know that "người" is a classifier).
I've googled it and I think this website gives a good explanation: http://www.languagehack.com/2010/09/21/vietnamese-classifiers-lo%E1%BA%A1i-t%E1%BB%AB-a-list/
The most accurate translation is the man. In Vietnamese a man is một người đàn ông and sometimes một is omitted. So in this case, "a man" is still a correct answer.
To be more clear when to use the or a/an, please see grammar and notice the difference when "một" or a classifier is present.
From the first lesson page:
ARTICLES (A/AN/THE) (FEATURED IN LESSON 4)
In Vietnamese, there are no articles similar to those in English. You use the word một to represent a quantity of “1” and that is all.
For the learning purpose throughout the skill tree, you should follow this pattern of using articles:
- In Vietnamese sentence, if you see the word một, then your English answer should contain a/an. If not, then your English answer should contain the.
- In English sentence, if you see a/an, then your Vietnamese answer should contain một. If you see the instead, then your Vietnamese answer should not have anything before the noun (except for classifiers which will be taught later).