"I need a book."
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While your version, being in biernik (accusative) is quite widely used (1880 results in google for the exact phrase, vs 4080 for "potrzebuję książki"), the linguists would say that the only case which can be used with "potrzebować" is dopełniacz (genitive), thus making "Potrzebuję książki" the only really correct option.
Yes, language does indeed evolve as initially 'incorrect' constructions eventually become accepted by the majority of speakers. However, the results mentioned above are somewhat distorted (because of the way how Google calculates these numbers), in reality, potrzebować + accusative is several dozen times less common in written texts than potrzebować + genitive. This is likely to change in the future, but for now, we keep the accusative rejected.
Why is it książki and not książky? I'm using the grammar book "Polish Verbs & Essentials of Grammar" (see pg 18) and the declension for the genitive case of książka should be książky because książka is a hard stem feminine noun. Is this noun an exception to the rule? Why/Why not?