- In Vietnamese, "con" denotes a movement object. "Cái" denotes fix object which itself is not movement. Eg1: The fish can swim => movement => it called "con cá" instead "cái cá". Eg2: The bicycle is not movement itselt => it called " cái xe đạp".
There are exceptions like "con dao" for a knife. Also, "cái" can be used in conjunction with another animate thing or another classifier like "cái thằng này".
When is the classifier used? I thought it would work the same as in Mandarin, that you need a classifier when you use a number (e.g. "một cái ca"), but is it used on its own too (without a number)? In that case how do I know when to say cái ca or just ca?
Pitcher* is the same as a jug depending on English dialect. Some areas of Vietnam use "ca" to mean jug or pitcher.