In this context, it's a good translation. Added.
ddziaduch's version is literally "Do you have any sugar" like in "any type of sugar, absolutely any".
Any good reason why "do you have the sugar" isn't acceptable.? Example usage: I'm sitting at a table with a number of people, and I need sugar for my coffee. I ask somebody "Do you have the sugar?" implying that I know it's on the table somewhere, but I can't see it.
Just an oversight, if sugar was mentioned before, then it sure makes sense. Added now.
Thank you kindly! As you hint, one of the trickier usages of the English definite article is to refer back to some object that has been previously referenced in the same or closely related conversation.