yes, you´are correct of course. just after posting my first comment i realized this was NOT the good exemple ! it is with the rest of the lesson that I have problems identifying the reason of the genitive. I am very good at grammar with languages like German and Russian because I have studied Latin during the 7 compulsory years of classical studies and it is a language with "declinaisons" " Deklinationen in German" ¨ more similar to Russian than to German because it doesn´t have articles either and it has also 6 cases. I will have to go back to this genitiv lesson to really understand the system or, better said,to understand how the Russian mind works in this respect. Many thanks for youir answer.
In case anyone is interested, Russian is one of a few languages to recognize 12 basic color terms, while English currently has 11:
Note that these are "basic" in that we don't describe them as modifications of other colors: English speakers would find it odd if you described pink as light-red, despite that being the perspective of many language-cultures, and that being what it objectively is.
Same goes for Russian and its "two words for" blue. Though I wonder if any Russians can chime in on whether they find our conflation of the two color categories as odd.
I wonder if any Russians can chime in on whether they find our conflation of the two color categories as odd.
Considering that English is mandatory in Russian schools and names of the basic colors are one of the first things being taught, most Russians, even those who never moved past the basics of the language, are aware of this fact since childhood so we don't find it odd as much as just different :) Kids do find it a bit surprising that English has one word for two colors, but they usually quickly accept it and move on.
-Thanks, of course I am interested. Spanish has 12 also ( two different words for BLUE . AZUL = BLUE and CELESTE = light/sky blue) whilst my language ( French) must use TWO words to differentiate between these 2 blue colors : BLEU and BLEU CIEL. I am just wondering what to do with MAUVE and LIL.A and VIOLET. maybe they are considered as variants of POURPRE ( PURPLE in English) French has the same basic 11 like English. But French and Spanish have two different words for BLACK . French has NOIR and JAIS Spanish has ❤❤❤❤❤ and AZABACHE. JAIS AND AZABACHE correspond to a very very DEEP BLACK COLOR. In Spanish it is used commonly for the women's black hair ( cabello azabache). In French it was used for the color of the black eyes when they are blacker than black. ( des yeux de jais) but I think it is not used anymore.I lost contact with my language because I live in South America since 1992. I do speak French everyday with a friend but we have been cut from the evolution of our language since over 26 years now. Our mother tongue became Spanish which i personally speak since the age of 18. I will be 78 next december.
I think it depends on the context of the Russian. Genitive nouns can be translated sometimes as "some [noun]" (I recall using genitive in the positive to ask for "some water" in a previous exercise - я хочу воды rather than Accusative воду), and when you negate that, you get "not any [noun]" - but adopting a general rule about нет and "any" doesn't allow for other uses of нет. So, I think that if the positive statement makes sense if you translate the word with "some" in front of it, then "not any" would make sense using нет.
It's my understanding that синих is genitive plural because it modifies тарелок, and тарелок is genitive because of нет and is plural simply because the sentence contemplates the absence of more than one plate - but we're considering the existence of numerous plates, we simply don't have them - they exist somewhere, if only in the imagination.
I'm pretty sure it has something to do with the preceding vowel. Hard vowels will require «е», soft vowels require «о». Here are a few examples:
тарелка --> тарелок
вилка --> вилок
девочка --> девочек
ручка --> ручек
чашка --> чашек
Hard vowels: а, о, у, э, ы
Soft vowels: я, ё, ю, е, и
Nay, it really depends on the consonants. Л will use О while any palatalised consonant will trigger Е, and these include ш, ж, ц. They are "hard" now but were initially palatalised (which affects the spelling conventions to this day):
- тарелка → тарелок, полка → полок
- порка → порок, топка → топок
- печка → печек, чашка → чашек
- электричка → электричек, матрёшка → матрёшек
- койка → коек, лейка → леек, эвенкийка → эвенкиек
- краска → красок, доска → досок, записка → записок
The only exception I can come up with is кишка→кишок (the word is endings-stressed, so it should be шо, not ше).
A Reverse Dictionary is a good way to look up examples. Just find the combination you want at the end (e.g. , -пка ) and click on a few nouns that match.