"I am an adult man."
Translation:Jestem dorosłym człowiekiem.
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Do you mean "Jestem dorosłym mężczyzną"? Because in the main answer, "Jestem dorosłym człowiekiem" everything is very clearly masculine...
And everything is masculine in "Jestem dorosłym mężczyzną" as well. But the noun "mężczyzna" seems feminine at first, true. And undergoes declension as if it was feminine. But it means "man", so logically, it has to be masculine. And takes masculine adjectives, possessives etc.
It's instrumental. All adjectives have the same declension pattern. The only exceptions are virile nominative forms, which can vary.
I'd say it's mostly used in plural that way, "dorośli" = "(the) adult people" (either in general, or specific adults we're talking about). For example a kid can say "Dorośli są głupi!" = "Adults are dumb!".
In singular... there surely are some context, mostly as "the adult one", but plural seems way more common.