"They do not employ students."
Translation:Oni nie zatrudniają studentów.
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No, "chodzić" and "iść" are still both Present Tense. They are Verbs of Motion, so they're basically the only verbs that show a difference between Present Simple and Present Continuous.
What you wrote means "They will not employ students". "zatrudnić" is a perfective verb, and it's impossible to use a perfective verb in the Present Tense. What may seem like Present Tense to the learner, is actually Future Simple.
Does studentów refer to male and female students in this example? As in a group of students that contains males and females? Or they just don't hire male students?
If it referred to 'studentek', would this mean it is just the female students they don't hire? And if so, how would you say that they don't hire the male students but do hire the female ones?
Yes, "studentów" refers to male and female students here. Technically it could be just male students, but I think you'd need to explain it more precisely or no one would understand it like that.
Yes, "studentek" would be just female students, which I guess makes it possible for male students to be hired. However, I'd only expect it to be mentioned if for a particular job it was generally assumed that a woman will be hired.
For your last question... I guess a literal translation of what you wrote, "nie zatrudniają studentów, ale zatrudniają studentki".