"Am I big enough already?"
Translation:Czy jestem już wystarczająco duży?
Just remember that in many contexts it can be ambiguous:
Ten mężczyzna jest dość wysoki = This man is tall enough.
Ten mężczyzna jest dość wysoki = This man is quite tall (this sounds like the more probable interpretation)
"Wystarczająco" has only this one meaning that is needed here, "dość" has two.
Why is the "czy" obligatory in this phrase? I tried without and that was incorrect.
It did not allow "Jestem duży dość już"- so it needs to be in the same word order as referenced in the heading to make sense in Polish? Which means it also would not allow "Jestem już duży dość" ?
'dość' describes 'duży', so it should be in front of it.
Both your word orders are rather weird, I'm afraid.