Polish slang pronouns
so I started listening to Polish music recently and I heard they use a lot of shortened pronouns like twe (instead of twoje), then swe, me, mą, mym, etc. Is this common in slang speech or is it music only (to get it to rhyme)?
It is not slang. Rather opposite
You can see those forms in this wikitionary table
Possessive pronouns ( my, mine, your, yours,...=mój, twój)
"ma, twa, swa... " Krótsze formy (po ukośniku „/”) mają charakter książkowy, nie są raczej używane w języku potocznym. Nie mogą być używane w pozycjach akcentowanych zdania, niepoprawne są np. zdania „Ma siostra robi obiad.” i „Dałem jedzenie memu i twemu kotu.”.
shorter forms (after slash/) have a bookish chracter, and are rather not used in common language. They cannot be used in an accented position i the sentence, so sentences „Ma siostra robi obiad.” and „Dałem jedzenie memu i twemu kotu.” are incorrect.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS (I, me, you, he, him = Ja, mnie/mię, ty, on jego/go)
You can also see "mię" = Dative=Accusative form of "ja"- alternative for "mnie", which is considered archaic (but follows rules of ciebie/cię)
also for weird pronouns, there is -ń form of "niego" ( Genitive=Accusative form of on, genitive form of ono). For example doń=do niego.
other pairs (or sets of three) of personal pronouns are equally used. Longer versions for accented, shorter version is for unaccented position in a sentence. n- version is after preposition
and se= coloqial, impolite form of "sobie"
Short forms are used in common language quite often. Forms with ~ń are rather archaic and used mainly in books to imitate Old Polish or maybe in few expressions. And of course in older literature.
I dare you to google and find some "normal" sentences on the internet with short versions of possesive pronouns.
that is not "possesive pronoun" I was talking about. That is "personal pronoun", and yes cię and ciebie are equally common, and neither is more formal.
OK I see. I understood that the question is about pronouns in general, not only possesive ones. Sorry
so how come some of these are used often (mi, mu, go), and some are not common (me, mą, swa)
I don't know why. But short forms of personal pronouns are common. (other than mię, for some reason). And short forms of possesive pronouns are uncommon/bookish
It is quite common. I’m not sure if there’s any rule about using them, to me there are equal forms, except more official language is, the more long forms will be appreciated.
I was several times corrected that shorter forms are more informal and I should use longer ones. Apparently they are pretty equal, and although there are some rules for standard speech not so many people cares.
Who told you this? Phrases like "swym dzieciom" "twego ojca" "mej miłości" just scream "church"/"poetry" to me. You google "twojemu" and anything can show up. You google "twemu" and there are church songs.
OK, I checked it ant they are quite equal and it is not true that longer form is more elegant (although some people believe it). It seems that long form you usually use at the beginning of the sentence, after a preposition, or if you want to give more importance to it. Short form you’d use in any other situation. Still Polish is quite flexible so using it in a different way usually won’t be conisdered as a mistake.
Hope it helps
there is also an official website of Polish Language Council (Rada Języka Polskiego) but it seem not working now.
this article is about something else. It is about different case forms of pronouns. This thing comes up often in comments, where people ask "what is the difference between jego and go?" etc.
With those- you use longer version in an accented position - either at the beginning of the sentence, after preposition, often at the end or of if you want to make it accented. You use shorter version in not accented position. You use special n-forms like niemu, niej, nim after preposition.
those are equally used.
It is about short and long forms of pronouns and how to use them. So it is about the Lica98’s question.
but it's not the same thing with all short forms, "mu" and "go" are used even more often than "jemu" and "jego", but "ma" and "me" are used rarely and it's usually "moja" and "moje"
Yes, somehow some short forms are more popular than other ones. I am trying to find an answer, but I’m not finding anything... My guess is that we are in the middle of the language evolution and some forms are slowly dying, but I can’t find any rule. If you’d use "ma" or "swą" you’d be perfectly understood and it won’t be awkward, they are sometimes used as well. If I’ll find something I’ll write here.
OK I see where’s the point – I understood your question is about pronouns in general, not only possesive ones.
btw, I rather think that it is used in songs because of rhyming purposes and the need of having smaller number of syllables ;)