Latin for Duolingo: Verbs Present Tense 2, Lesson 4
Salvete omnes! Welcome back to Latin for Duolingo. This totally unofficial series of Latin lessons has been going on for over a year now, as we wait for the noble classical language to make its way into the Duolingo incubator. If you would like to catch up with previous lessons, you can find a directory of lessons, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at these links:
- Directory of Lessons
- Vocabulary List
- Memrise course for vocabulary
- Memrise course with sentences created by zsocipuszmak
- Previous lesson, Verbs Present 2, 3
Today, let’s add another series of verbs to those we’ve covered already. Also, let’s learn another way of expressing possession, using the dative case; called the dative of possession, a helpful explanation can be found here. It is commonly used, maybe more so than habeo. One of our new verbs, egeo, is used frequently with an object in the ablative case. Many Latin verbs are used with a case other than the accusative; just one more of the many complexities of Latin. You’ll also notice that many verbs are formed with a base form to which a prepositional prefix has been added; in this lesson, adjuvo, amitto, absum, adsum.
adjuvo (adiuvo), adjuvare, adjuvi, adjutus also juvo (iuvo), 1 = help, assist
egeo, egēre, egui, 2 (w. abl. or gen.) = need, am in need of
amitto, amittere, amisi, amissus, 3 = lose, send away
peto, petere, petivi, petitus, 3 = seek, beg, order, ask for, aim for
vinco, vincere, vici, victus, 3 = conquer, win
absum, abesse, afui, afuturus, irreg. = am away, am distant
adsum, adesse, adfui, adfuturus, irreg. = am here, am present
Lucia duos fratres habet. = Lucia has two brothers.
Duo fratres Luciae sunt. = Lucia has two brothers (two brothers are for Lucia).
Librum bonum habeo/ Liber bonus mihi est. = I have a good book.
Octo liberi eis sunt/ Octo liberos habent. = They have eight children.
Epistula tibi est. = You have a letter/ There’s a letter for you.
Magister rogat, “Adestne Lucia?” = The teacher asks, “Is Lucia here?”
“Lucia abest,” discipuli dicunt. = “Lucia is absent,” the students say.
“Ubi est Marcus?” “Adsum!” = “Where is Marcus?” “I’m here!”
Undeviginti discipuli adsunt, sed tres absunt. = Nineteen students are present, but three are absent.
Marcus semper vincit. = Marcus always wins.
Romani Gallos vincunt. = The Romans conquer the Gauls.
Vincimus! = We are winning!
Mater puellas adjuvat. = Mom helps the girls.
Puellae matrem adjuvant. = The girls help Mom.
Paula responsa petit. = Paula is seeking answers.
Miseros adjuvat. = He/she helps the poor people/unfortunate/needy.
Paula pullum et oryzam petit. = Paula orders chicken and rice.
Jus et acetaria peto. = I order soup and salad.
Cervisiam petunt. = They order beer.
Claves amitto. = I lose my keys.
Spem non amittimus. = We do not lose hope.
Pecuniam amittunt. = They are losing money.
Pecuniā eges/egetis. = You need money.
Gaius sapone et dentifricio eget. = Gaius needs soap and toothpaste.
Auxilio egeo. = I need help.
Duodecim sedibus egemus. = We need twelve chairs.
Pueri tunicis novis egent. = The boys need new shirts.
I’ll be taking a few weeks off after this lesson before the next one, which will probably be about adverbs. If you have questions, comments, or corrections please add them in a comment below, and I will try to respond as necessary. Pax vobiscum!
Next Lesson: Adverbs 1
Et cum spirito tuo :)
Ego paulum Latinae linguae studiavi in lyceo, et gratias tibi ago.
Thank you so much for these installments!
In the example '"Marcus?” “Adsum!"', shouldn't "Marcus" be in the vocative?