"The student is sleeping because it is Saturday."
Translation:Studentka śpi, ponieważ jest sobota.
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Since the English sentence is ambiguous, we need to accept both 'uczeń' and 'student' here.
The problem is in the second clause. "To jest X" works if X is either a noun or an adjective, but 'sobota' is supposed to be treated as an adverbial of time in this sentence.
The suggested sentence thus sounds like: "The student is sleeping because that is a Saturday".
Here "to sobota" would just be a shorter, but equivalent version of "to jest sobota". I don't think 'to' fits here at all.
In the English sentence "it" is a dummy pronoun, which usually means that there is no pronoun in the Polish translation.
A similar example is: "It is raining - Pada deszcz." You can't say "This/That is raining", so you also can't put a 'to' into the Polish sentence.
A second one: "It is hot (in) here - Tutaj jest gorąco."
In most English sentences in this course, "It is [something]" could be changed to "This is [something]" or "That is [something]" and the meaning wouldn't really change.
But here... "it is Saturday" means that 'right now it is Saturday', "today is Saturday'. If we changed it to "this/that is Saturday", the meaning would be different. In other sentences, it would just stop making sense (e.g. you say "It is raining", not "This/That is raining").
So if the English sentence cannot easily substitute "it" with "this/that", that means that the Polish sentence will be subjectless.