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https://www.duolingo.com/FenAshburn

Questions about 'kaj'

I have some questions about the word 'kaj.'

We match the plural/singular forms of nouns and their adjectives:

bela hundo/belaj hundoj

But when kaj is there between the adjectives, we don't (necessarily? I'm not far enough along to know if it's universal.):

blua kaj rugxa kunikloj

In this case is 'kaj' used as a sort of abstract way of indicating plural? Therefore, there is no reason to duplicate it for each adjective?

Then, is there a different way to indicate rabbits which are each a mix blue and red, and a group of rabbits of which some are blue and some are red?

Thank you! ^^

2 years ago

8 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Fantomius
Fantomius
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blua kaj rugxa kunikloj

Unless you have exactly two rabbits, one blue and one red, this is not correct. You still need to pluralize your adjectives, like this:

  • bluaj kaj ruĝaj kunikloj

Then, is there a different way to indicate rabbits which are each a mix blue and red, and a group of rabbits of which some are blue and some are red?

Just as in English, "bluaj kaj ruĝaj kunikloj" ("blue and red rabbits") can have either meaning.

Normally we can figure what is meant by context, but in case you need to be more specific, you could say:

  • bluaj kunikloj kaj ruĝaj kunikloj (blue rabbits and red rabbits)
  • kunikloj, ĉiu blua kaj ruĝa (rabbits, each one blue and red)

You can insert an extra "kaj" in that last one to mean "both":

  • kunikloj, ĉiu kaj blua kaj ruĝa (rabbits, each one both blue and red)

Other variations exist of each, I'm sure. And some that probably look nicer than what I've given here.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/salivanto
salivanto
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"blua kaj rugxa kunikloj" = a blue and a red rabbit = a blue rabbit and a red one.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/FenAshburn

That makes sense. Rabbits, (plural) of which one is blue (singular) and one is red (singular). Thank you!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/FenAshburn

Ah, I see! The section in lernu.net (where I got these examples) was vague about that particular sentence, so thank you for explaining it in depth for me! ^^

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/ionasky
ionasky
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kaj means 'and' it's a conjunction not an adjective. The nouns are plural if its a group of rabbits that are either red or blue because it is one thing AND another, but if a single thing is mixed colours that is not the same. At least i think that is what you are getting at

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/FenAshburn

Yup, that's where my confusion was. I wasn't sure if 'kaj' meant 'and' as a standalone word, or if the 'j' on the end was pluralizing a root word, and perhaps allowing it to assume the role of Plural for other words in the sentence.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/ionasky
ionasky
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Yes its a stand alone word and the terminal j is just part of the word, to the best of my knowledge anyway. Others may know better. .

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/salivanto
salivanto
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Kaj comes directly from Greek "και" and was respelled to make it an Esperanto word. It has no grammatical endings. All three letters are part of the word.

2 years ago