Translation:The professor asked me to not be late.
The Russian sentence is clunky and unnatural. It should be either Преподаватель попросил меня не опаздывать or Преподаватель потребовал (demanded), чтобы я не опаздывал
Your first suggestion "Преподаватель попросил меня не опаздывать" makes it much easier to translate for me. I would never have gotten the original correct.
We say, "Преподаватель попросил меня не опаздывать". Your version doesn't sound complete. It says, "The lecturer asked me to -- so that I don't come late". What did he ask me to do? To use the alarm clock? To have someone wake me up? It doesn't say.
Duo is characterized by excessive complication of Russian texts. Probably, the developers believe that this is "more correct", but it is impossible to explain the error to them, they do not perceive criticism.
It's fine in this sentence (I am a native English speaker) and it's the kind of thing we in the UK would say. "I asked my son to not play football in the house" for example
Which one is correct please? The teacher asked me not to be late, or to not be late?
Either one sounds okay to me. Not to be is probably the more common construction. To not be sounds slightly formal to me.
I noticed that in several other subjunctive sentences after "чтобы" they used the Past Tense of the Perfective Aspect of the corresponding verb. In this example they used the Imperfective Aspect. Could a Russian Native speaker help me to understand why? The Perfective Aspect of "опаздывать" is "опаздать" according to the Oxford Dictionary.
Compare: Преподаватель потребовал, чтобы я не опаздывал = The teacher/lecturer demanded that I should not be late [ever], Преподаватель попросил меня не опаздывать = The teacher/lecturer asked me not to be late [ever] (in other words, "to be always on time"), and Преподаватель позаботился о том, чтобы я не опоздал: он вызвал мне такси = The teacher/lecturer saw to it that I was not late [on that particular occasion] - he called me a taxi.
Thank you so much. I have just realized that now I can open the answers from other Duolingo participants.
That's incorrect, yes. "Have" implies a plural subject ('my teachers have asked me...'); teacher is singular, so it should be 'has'.
Раздел - высших пилотаж, конечно). Тут тебе и сложное дополнение, и условные предложения 2 уровня.
Not in this context, I think. There may be some instances out there where "beg" can mean "просить"; for example "I beg your pardon" is most idiomatically translated as "прошу прощения". But in general "beg" is a more intense word than "просить" and such a translation would have an additional hue that wasn't there in the original text.
Most often “beg” corresponds to the Russian verb «умолять» which has no perfective counterpart.