"Czy w tej łazience jest wanna?"
Translation:Is there a bathtub in this bathroom?
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That would mean "Czy wanna jest w tej łazience?"
It implies (you used 'the', after all) that there was a bathtub mentioned in the conversation and now you're wondering where it is located. "Czy wanna jest w tej łazience? A może w tamtej? Albo w kuchni?" - "Is the bathtub in this bathroom? Or maybe that one? Or in the kitchen?"
The Polish question simply asks whether there is a bathtub in this bathroom (or maybe just a shower). Which sounds like a more probable question to ask ;)
Yeah, it's one of those weird ones - even in the 50s, less than half of houses in England had a bath at all let alone a bathroom! https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/mar/21/british-homes-without-bathroom-archive-1950. So the whole concept of a bathroom per se in the UK is surprisingly young. The correct answer to your question is "shower room", but due to the influence of americanism, a lot of people would call it (technically incorrectly) bathroom. You'd be disowned by your nation though if you referred to a room with only a toilet as a bathroom in the UK ;)
In case you are still interested in this subject matter...FYI: Brits and US/North Americans refer to "bathrooms" as someone already pointed out. British people have more terms as well. I would guess that Australians and NZers use the same terms as the British. Normally people just ask something like, "Where is the shower"? and one responds, "In the bathroom upstairs on the right". A "shower room" has a different meaning (perhaps a space that has a shower, but no bathroom such as in the basement). US Americans use "bathroom" which is of course a euphemism to avoid mentioning the word "toilette" which is often avoided at least in the US/North America to refer to the bathroom. Interestingly, there is a means for distinguishing a bathroom with or without a bathtub/shower. Without is a "half bath" and with is a "full bath". This however is really only used to describe the layout of the apartment e.g., potential house buyer or to someone who is curious about the design of the house and the kind of rooms (in a technical sort of way). (No one says "where is the half bath"? or "where is a full bath" - these would be very strange and are NOT said at all) . Rather "Where is a bathroom with a shower or bathtub?" or "Where's the shower?" or "Where's the bathtub?".
Well, I think I'd just say that the emphasis goes rather at the end, plus of course in speech you have the matter of intonation. Other than that, we would need to discuss specific examples. Like here, we had a normal question about the 'presence' of a bathtub in this bathroom, and karl42 changed it into a question about the whereabouts of the bathtub.
It is the same discussion that we have had before. Yes, it is conceivable that you would use "this" in such a phrase, albeit a lot less so in English than in Polish.
On a side note, I must say that I'm impressed with the standard of accomodation a university student in Poland has...
No, I don't believe that "Is a bathtub in this bathroom there?" is correct. I see two options:
"Is there a bathtub in this bathroom?" (you have no idea whether there is a bathtub there or not)
"Is the bathtub in this bathroom?" (you know that there is a bathtub somewhere in the house, but you don't know where, in which bathroom.
Is a łazienka a room with a toilet in it? If so an acceptable answer should be "in this toilet is there a bathtub"? I know there's always a load of possible answers but this is after all a near literal, though grammatically correct, translation and follows the "order" of the Polish phrase. Thanks as always.