Japanese Lesson 45: Prepositions part 4
^_^ This is the last part of Prepositions, and the end of the second tier on the tree. So CONGRATULATIONS! :D
Towards： No kata ni: の かた に： の方に
Towards: Mukau: むかう： 向かう
Near: No chikaku ni: の ちかく に： の近くに
Over: (as in "it's over" or the end of something!!) Owaru: おわる： 終わる
Over: (as in on top of something) No ue ni: の うえ に： の上に
Except： ～Igai： ～いがい： ~以外
Against：(as in "vs") Tai: たい： 対
Yeah okay I'm going to touch on some things here. First and foremost... if you can avoid a pronoun because the context is known... ALWAYS avoid the pronoun. It's best to use someone's name if you can.
Okay let's start with "towards" の方に Personally I would translate this closer to "In the direction of". That helps me remember it should have the possessive "no" の which in this case would be acting as "of"... and the directional "ni" に.
On the subject of the directional に, duolingo recommends the particle へ!
The Particle へ: The symbol へ would normally be pronounced "heh" HOWEVER. When it's used as a directional particle it makes the sound "eh". Otherwise it works just like the particle "ni" に, but is used in more formal settings.
In this lesson we get 2 completely different definitions of the word "over" ... one is a preposition, the other is not. I suspect this was more for the ease of the Japanese speakers learning English. So in this lesson we'll be learning both "Over" as in "it's over" and "over" as in "on top of"
And finally, we won't be getting the preposition version of "against" in this lesson... (which incidentally I don't know anyway)... but you might be able to use "near" instead for those situations.... If anyone knows better PLEASE tell me!
She walks towards him.
Kanojo wa kare no kata ni arukimasu.
かのじょ は かれ の かた に あるきます。
It is over.
Note: Remember a while back when I said you can make a full sentence with just the verb? Here's one of them! As long as the context is clear you only need "Owaru".
Except for the wine.
Kind of like with "ato" "igai" seems to be tacked right at the end of the noun you're speaking of at the time.
The dogs sleep near us.
Inu wa watashitachi no chikaku ni nemasu.
いぬ は わたしたち の ちかく に ねます。
The dog walks over the cat.
Inu wa neko no ue o arukimasu.
いぬ は ねこ の うえ を あるきます。
(lit: The dog walks on top of the cat)
LOOKOUT: When talking about walking on someplace or walking at a place (eg a park) you want to use the particle "o" を instead of "ni" に!! I guess in a sense you can think of it as GOING TO a destination (ni) VS walking ON or AT (essentially on) a place. Which, yes, kind of seems weird... to me anyway. ... do bear in mind though... when not talking about walking... and talking about something being on top of something else we'd still use the particle "ni".
Syntax just ALWAYS needs that one exception. Right?
I want her near me.
Watashi wa kanojo ni chikaku o ite hoshii.
わたし は かのじょ に ちかく を いて ほしい。
I walk towards them.
Watashi wa karera mukatte arukimasu.
わたし は かれら に むかって あるきます。
Note: Here we have an example of CHAINING VERBS TOGETHER. Yes you can chain verbs together. ... usually not in this... sort of way. Usually they're chained together in a list like "I'm going to do and go to _ and do _" but the same rule applies to both. When chaining verbs you want to turn the first verb into "te" form and the second one with a "masu" ending when chaining 2 verbs together. When chaining 3 verbs the first 2 need to be in "te" form and the last one with a "masu" ending.... for 4 or more you need to chill. (JK same thing).
For more on Chaining Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs, and other Compound Sentence goodness please mosey on over to Tae Kim's Guide to Japanese: Compound Sentences!
Except for the beer.
They are near their children.
Karera wa karera no kodomo no chikaku ni imasu.
かれら は かれら の こども の ちかく に います。 彼らは彼らの子供の近くにいます。
Run towards me.
Watashi no kata ni hashirinasai.
わたし の かた に はしりなさい。
I eat fruit except for apples.
Watashi wa ringo igai no kudamono o tabemasu.
わたし は リンゴ いがい の くだもの を たべます。
私はリンゴ以外の果物を食べます。 (lit: Except for apples I eat fruit)
Note: Okay I'm having some trouble with the usage of "no" in this one. From what I can find of の's usages this might be the one that acts more like a comma? Basically it's there to show a relationship between the two nouns... but I don't quite understand the function exactly. ;A; Sorry!
The cat walks over my shirt.
Neko wa watashi no shatsu no ue o arukimasu.
ねこ は わたし の シャツ の うえ を あるきます。
Red against Blue.
(Red VS blue)
Aka tai ao.
あか たい あお。
I walk towards them.
Watashi wa karera no kata ni arukimasu.
わたし は かれら の かた に あるきます。
REMEMBER: In this example we're talking about walking TO somebody. Not walking at a place or on someone. So we use "NI" not "o".
That's it for this lesson. Until next time!
Hi, I had been learning Japanese for three months last summer, but After that school started again and I decided to learn French as it was less time consuming. I stopped warching any anime for six months, but now my interests in Japanese have been renewed. Anyways, while I was learning French, I always used wordreference to figure out words I don't know, however, it doesn't have any romaji translations so I can't search a specific Japanese word unless I use kana/kanji or figure out its translation. Do you know of any online dictionaries that do have those features, and thanks for the lessons. I'm probably going to use all of them later :)
my go to is Jisho.org. The layout has changed since I last needed romaji to read. I did a little digging for you and found you can search a word with "#romaji" next to it and it will show you the romaji for all the entries in that particular search. That's really the only dictionary I use besides the random house Japanese to English dictionary in my bookcase upstairs. :) Hope that helps!
She walks towards him. Kanojo wa kare no kata ni arukimasu. かのじょ は かれ の かた に あるきます。 彼女は彼の方に歩きます。
”方に” は "ほうに"です。 方向-ほうこう 方角-ほうがく 方位-ほうい 方法-ほうほう 一方-いっぽう ←ippou
”方に” が ”かたに” になるのは人のときです。
「次の方どうぞ」つぎ の かた どうぞ 「こちらの方ですか？」こちら の かた ですか？ 「あの方はどなたですか？」あの かた は どなた ですか？
「あなた方はどちらからおいでになりましたか？」 あなたがた は どちら から おいでになりました か？
また、 ”あなた” と読む漢字は 貴方←よく見る 貴女←きじょ とも読む 彼方←これが正しい
I want her near me. Watashi wa kanojo ni chikaku o ite hoshii. わたし は かのじょ に ちかく を いて ほしい。 私は彼女に近くをいて欲しい。
”を” ではなく ”に” です 「彼女に近くにいて欲しい。」主語が I なら私は省略しても良いです。
＜場所＞ に ＋ ある/いる 寝る 置く 座る 行く 止まる 泊まる 立つ
＜場所＞ を ＋ 走る 歩く 見る 通る 泳ぐ