In English, not exactly. They have a lot of overlap in meaning, but not all hallways are corridors and vice versa. For the following definitions, only first two are synonyms:
A gallery or passage connecting parts of a building; hallway.
A passage into which several rooms or apartments open.
A passageway in a passenger ship or railroad car permitting access to separate cabins or compartments.
A narrow tract of land forming a passageway, as one connecting two major cities or one belonging to an inland country and affording an outlet to the sea: the Polish Corridor.
A usually densely populated region characterized by one or more well-traveled routes used by railroad, airline, or other carriers: The Northeast corridor extends from Washington, D.C., to Boston.
In Aeronautics . a restricted path along which an aircraft must travel to avoid hostile action, other air traffic, etc.
It's more apt to say that a "hallway" is a "corridor" than that a "corridor" is a "hallway". Some hallways in buildings can be quite large and open, with adjoining rooms off of them, so that the enclosing idea inherent in "corridor" doesn't fit them well.
Question is: how limited is коридор? Is more like a hallway, or more like an English corridor (of the many meanings)?
As far as I can tell Russian doesn't have different adverbs to express that distinction. There is налево and влево - in these, на & в are expressing motion since лево is neuter. Hypothetically, if there were corresponding prepositional versions they would be налеве and влеве, but these words do not exist.
I would conjecture that this is because there is really no meaningful difference between "to the left" and "on the left". You may disagree.
Ok, thank you. I think there is a meaningful difference, though. "Walk to the left" or "go left" implies turning away from one's previous direction, while "walk on the left" could mean "continue walking straight, but walk on the left side of the corridor". Perhaps to precisely express the latter in Russian, one would have to say something like идите на левой стороне коридора?