The structure in English is a little strange here. If you use the present perfect verb "have won," it implies continuous action from the past through the present, so it is not a specific, definite match. It should be, "Have your brothers won a match?". --indefinite article "a."
If you're talking about one specific, definite match and want to know the result of that match, then you use the past tense verb "won," which becomes "did win" in question form (interrogative). In this case, you would ask, "Did your brothers win the match?". --definite article "the."
I agree, and the indefinite article is not accepted here still (and it seems like it should be), but it could also imply "have they won it YET?", in which case you would use the present participle and the definite article (e.g. if you return to the stadium and aren't sure if the game is over yet).
So all three combinations ARE possible, and as far as I can see, they all work as translations for this sentence.
There's a nuance of difference. "Did you brothers win" is further back in time - very much after the match is over, while "have you brothers won" is a much less common way of asking the question - and it could actually be asked before the match is over, as when a score is so lop-sided that it's impossible for the opponents to win, absent some sort of miracle. Mostly, though, if the match is over, you'd ask "Did your brothers win", not "have they won".
"Have your brothers won?" could also mean over a long period time of recurring matches, asking if they have ever won any of those matches. Obviously all those matches are over, so "Did your brothers win?" means exactly the same as "Have your brothers won?" in this case. So it's open to interpretation.
"Have your brothers won the match?" sounds perfectly ok/correct to me, in the right context. Generally, that would be when the question is asked almost immediately after the match ends, or when it is still very recent in the mind of the speaker.
Someone arriving home from such a match might excitedly announce either "We've won!" or "We won!". The first of those simply indicates that the win is still foremost in the speaker's mind, an event that he or she is still experiencing and has not yet re-categorised as the past.
That said, this usage is probably much more common in British English. I get the impression that the present perfect tense is used far, far less in American English than it is in BE.