Can someone run through the cases used here?
całą = seems accusative fem - makes sense butelkę = seems accusative fem singular - makes sense wody = seems genetive singular
If correct, why does woda take genitive when the others take accusative?
Unless wody is plural accusative but i don't see why it would be plural.
"butelka wody" on its own takes Genitive for "water", as it's "bottle OF water". That doesn't change because otherwise that relation would be lost. So if you look at the noun phrase "całą butelkę wody", this noun phrase is in Accusative, even if something inside is in Genitive.
I know this has been said before, but I would like to repeat the comment that it would be VERY HELPFUL if Duolingo would include in the hints the name of the case being used wich would reinforce our learning of said cases. I always try to guess, and go to comments to see if the answers are there. Sometimes yes, often not if no one has asked or commented. This change would seem such a small and easy thing to do.
when listening to the lady in this (and also when hearing the language spoken), I do not understand why it does not matter if one can distinguish between 1st and 3rd person for many verbs when the last letter does change. First person, as shown above, is an "e" with a tail. Third person is a plain "e". Yet, you cannot distinguish when you hear someone speak it (unless I am the one speaking because I definitely make the two letters sound different). Why is this acceptable?
Why is this acceptable in real-life speech? I don't know, I pronounce it :D But most people don't do it too clearly. But on the other hand, you have the context in real-life speech...