This type of stranded adjective is always capitalised and always neuter. It doesn't agree with 'es' at all - 'von Neuem' is a set expression meaning 'from the beginning' or 'again'.
But watch out, because sometimes adjectives appear without a following noun, but in different constructions. The best thing to do is to learn things like 'von Neuem' as set expressions with a given meaning.
To be honest I don't think I've ever used the word 'anew' in my life. I would say 'from new'. A difference in American/British English perhaps. I'm from the north and now live in the south and would be surprised to hear someone use the word 'anew' in everyday conversation from either area.
I think it is an older word. I personally have run across it frequently enough that I not only recognize its meaning but would even use it myself; however, I do like to read a lot of older books, and I expect that is mostly where I have run across it.
"From new", on the other hand, is a phrase I am not familiar with. And, yes, I am from the USA, so that probably explains it.
Is this the standard word order for a question?
Could someone break it down for me?
My try: verb + subject + direct object pronoun + adverb (adverbial phrase?) + infinitive (?)
I don't even know what to call them in english; i know that the infinitive is not a part of speech, but i don't know what to call it. So i guess that's part of my question: what are the names of those parts of speech and what order do i put them in for a german question.
In German, the conjugated verb is always second (in questions without question words such as "warum" "wie" "wo" etc. you just leave position number one blank) and any other verbs or verb compliments go to the end of the sentence. With place number one left empty and the conjugated verb second, the subject gets placed after the verb (which is really what makes it sound like a question, just like in English). Then, with the infinitive verb going at the end, what comes next must clearly be either "es" or "von Neuem" I don't know what the reason is for placing "es" first, except that we do it in the English sentence as well. ("Do I have to do it again?" not "Do I have to do again it?")
You can read more about German word order here: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~german/Grammatik/WordOrder/WordOrder.html