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  5. "The American man drinks beer…

"The American man drinks beer."

Translation:El estadounidense bebe cerveza.

January 27, 2013



I agree entirely with the sentiment that all people from the Americas, are "americanos" (for anyone looking to practice through music, listen to the song "Si Somos Americanos"!) But both forms are acceptable. Spaniards say "americano", latinos more generally use "estadounidense."

As a "United Statesian" myself, I was always referred to as "un americano" instead of "un estadounidense" in my two years working in Spain.


In Spain people say 'americano' instead of 'estadounidense' just for laziness. We perfectly know the correct form to call the citizens from USA is estadounidenses, and we say it when we are formally talking.

As a shorter word I prefer "yanqui" but this is a personal election. ;-)


Interesting. As I am from the southern part of the United States, I am accustomed to "yankee" referring to someone from northeast portion of the United States. (this portion was historically more closely linked to Britain and became the enemy of the southern United States during the US civil war. I personally know many southern US folks that would be appalled to be linked to the term yankee)

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In the UK, "yankee" or "yanks" are an informal (and usually friendly/nuetral) nicknames for Americans


Meanwhile in Japan, a "yankee" is usually a somewhat wild adolescent, particularly one who loves to ride a noisy motorbike through quiet neighborhoods or otherwise cause trouble-- in other words, a delinquent.


Landen and FTB, AS a Southerner from the USA, I only call our Northern friends "yankees" now as a way to sort of tease them (because the South is better, of course -HA!) but truly despise the terminology (all one word, smushed together) Unitedstatesians - UGH! - we aren't "Yoo-ess-a-ians," either, & I know NO ONE who likes Unitedstatesians. If someone from another country smiles when they ask if I'm a "yankee," I'll smile back & say, "Yes, sí, oui, da," or whatever!

Even "Norteamericano" is MUCH better, & here is my reasoning: the other COUNTRIES of North America call themselves by their country's name, Canadians & Mexicans. So we'll be happy to take what's left. You wouldn't call Canada the Unitedprovincescanadian!


Actually I would have no problem at all with estadounidense if I could only make my mouth pronounce it more fluidly. I often enjoy pronouncing the longer Spanish words like desafortunadamente. I have finally almost mastered it through, as long as I just let it flow.


No puedes olvidar que los vaqueros de México son los primeros cowboys.


To state the obvious, You don't call Canada the Unitedprovincescanadian because that isn't it's name. The USA is the United States of America, also obvious.


To some it is offensive


As a fellow Southerner, you shouldn't be offended when other countries call us Yankees. To the rest of the world, all Americans are Yankees or Yanks. In the same sense, you shouldn't be offended if someone from the Middle East refers to you as a Westerner if you don't live in the American West.


Indeed, and certainly during WWII when so many GI's were stationed in England prior to D-Day, they were collectively referred to as Yanks. Possibly this may have been a negative description due to their reputation for stealing the hearts of English girls!! Nowadays, Yank isn't used that much, but American is. The reason seems quite simple, only the USA has America in the name of its country. Therefore seems rather obvious, it does not imply the USA has a monopoly on the use of the term for the 'Americas', in any case anyone in the world knows American is synonymous with USA. Confusion would only arise if Canadians and Mexicans decided to rename their countries as the 'Canadian Provinces of America' or 'The Mexican States of America' not to mention all of Central and South American nations!


On a similar note, the official name of Mexico is "Estados Unidos Mexicanos", so shouldn't Mexicans also be called "estadounidenses"?


Being from the Southwest I always refer to that conflict in the 1860s as The Eastern Regional Dispute ☺


What is the breakdown of the meaning of the word estadounidenses?


Estadounidense is a compound word derived from Los Estados Unidos, The Spanish word for the United States. It is the equivalent of saying. unitedstatesian, although that is not a word of course.


In Chile I heard only "americano".


In Mexico I only hear Americano.


No te puedo creer. ¿De verdad que no has oído nunca 'gringo' en Méjico?


:D Me gustan mucho Victor Jara y todas sus canciones


In Mexico as well as other parts of Latin America Americans are often called norteamericano. I always was annoyed by that because Mexico is also North America. I didn't hear estadounidense when I first learned Spanish 35 years ago which may or may not indicate an increase in use. But I would gladly embrace it if I could get it to trip off my tongue a little more.


I have never been called anything other than americana o gringa in latinoamerica, and when they use gringa, it is among friends and not meant as a pejorative.


Si una persona es estadounidense entonces es americano, pero si es americano es posible que no sea estadounidense.


Thank you. That's a beautiful explanation.


why "sea" here?


I think you should to review the subjunctive... ;-)


I will when I finally get to it. It's so annoying to have all the tenses bunched up at the end.


The fact is that throughout Latin America, and therefore throughout most of the Americas overall, the norm is for america to refer to the continent, i.e. North and South America, and for estados unidos to refer to the United States -of- America. This goes way back to the old days when the entire western New World was called America or Columbia by all of the Europeans, English included. The usage of America or American to refer to the U.S. or people from there is pretty much universal in the US and nearly so in Canada, the UK and other places, but is technically incorrect, as America originally, and logically, referred to "the Americas" and the United States of America is, as its name implies, a union of states ON America (the continent).


But I would not go so far as to say that it is incorrect, because citizens of the United States refer to themselves with the endonym "American" when referring to themselves as a citizen of the United States. Because as it is "The United States of America," the term "American" seemed the obvious choice in comparison to "United Statesian" or any other term in that ilk. Therefore it was considered a logical choice in the English-speaking world, but never has the term "American" been confined to that use as "American" is often used by English-speakers when discussing a citizen of the continents as a whole or just one of the two individually. (Continent classification is confusing, let's not start on it.) Therefore, the word "Americanos" should be expected to carry over into the Spanish-language with the massive influence of the English-language on world cultures, especially in Spanish-speaking communities of the United States itself. It's not as much a result anglocentrism as it is a result of natural linguistic processes. Neither is wrong as long as "Americano" is not conflated to mean only US citizens in all situations, excluding citizens of other nations on the American continent


Hmm. It's not as much a result of anglocentrism as it is a result of natural linguistic processes; however, .the word "Americanos" should be expected to carry over into the Spanish-language with the massive influence of the English-language on world cultures.

Certainly, there's no anglocentrism at play there, is there?


I'm not putting a value judgment on it. I'm just saying that it happens and shouldn't just be ignored because it seems "anglocentric."


We all seem to be trying to decide for Spanish speakers in the America's what they should call us in their language. That's never the way it works. All we have to know is whatever we choose to call ourselves in Spanish there is going to be some camp which may make some assumptions about us.


Right, the important part is to learn the terms you may encounter in Spanish synonymous with how we use "American" in english, and how to use them properly. Which word actually gets used is going to depend on the person you're speaking with and how they were raised and how they feel about it (and whether they've ever even thought about the term at all). I've encountered people for whom it was an issue (ie that were offended by the term American being used specifically for US citizens) and plenty of people who don't care as well. So just be aware of the possibilities and alert to whether it's an issue with whomever you're speaking with and you should be fine.


Your comment was too smart for this crowd.


That's thing though, it doesn't.


I wrote: El hombre americano bebe cerveza

and it was marked wronge, could anyone clarify?


DL should accept it as a correct translation (literally) but, I guess they expect you translate 'American' to 'estadounidense'.


It is accepted as of Oct. 20, 2016. And I agree with Branch, above - we are not trying to exclude anyone, or "hog" the term for all people in the American continents, we just don't have a short term for our country. Example: You folks in Peru surely live in South America, but have a nice, two-syllable county name. Same with Chile. Brazil. But if, within your countries are divisions or districts, you wouldn't want to have to call yourselves "Uniteddistrictschileians," would you? Sheesh!


I did the same thing, DL underlined hombre as wrong. I'm thinking hombre is unnecessary? Americano would be male anyway and americana female? So we've actually said the male american man drinks beer...


I don't find the words America and United States to mean the same thing. American can mean anyone from North, Central or South America. I believe estadounidense strictly means someone from the United States.


I read something not long ago how the official name of Mexico is also a collection of words. "United States of Mexico" I think and it is being official changed to Mexico since that is what everyone uses anyway. Anyway similar logic applies. To avoid a tongue twister or abbreviation American = US citizen to probably nearly everyone in the United States of America. The fact a word can have multiple meanings in no way diminishes that fact.


Estados Unidos Mexicanos


In Argentina, we use "estadounidenses" ,"yankees","gringos" ..


In Argentina, when someone says "American" is it assumed that the reference is to someone from the United States? DL asked that I translate into Spanish and I had heard that some people don't appreciate being excluded from being "American" when they live on the continent but not in the United States. I am just looking for some clarity and concensus.


Unfortunately, you will get no clarity on this question and consensus would depend on whether you're speaking of a consensus in the United States or a consensus of "Americans" who live in other countries on these continents. On the one hand (if you've read some of the nativist comments on this thread) you know there are too many "estadounidenses" who refuse to understand or acknowledge the validity of objections to US appropriation of the term. On the other hand, there are probably too many Latin Americans who refuse to consider either the historical or the phonaesthetic reasons for that seeming appropriation, which are:

  • The British, if informally, began calling their colonists "Americans" or "English-Americans" as early as the middle of the 17th century; by the end of the Seven Years' War and through the growing tensions approaching the Revolution, the colonists were routinely referred to as "the Americans" in Parliament.

  • Anglo-Americans, of course, had no problem applying the name to themselves and, after the Revolution, the US became the first sovereign country in the Americas and the only one to actually incorporate the word, "America' in its official name.

  • There is no other demonym that could be reasonably derived from that official name that is remotely acceptable; no one in the US is going to change "American" for something like "UnitedStatesian."


Your arguments start in the middle instead of at the beginning. The first colonists of the later US always considered the Indians from the Northern and the Southern continent as second-rate-creatures, from nature stupid, and apparently this is still the basic meaning in US people, including the actual president. It derives from such a thinking that they consider themselves as the Americans, wheras others, especially from the Central and Southern part of the continent, are not. Unfortunately many other countries adopted this, and when they say or hear America, they only think of the US, without being aware of the fact that America is much bigger than just this part of Northern America. A fact which supports the bigheadedness and arrogance of many of them.


How would you say 'the American woman drinks beer?' Shouldn't there be a hombre in the sentence?


For precision, I would use 'hombre' when no other context is given, but it is unnecessary. A woman from the USA is 'la estadounidense'. Estadounidense is a noun here. You could also say 'la mujer estadounidense' with estadounidense being an adjective. Estadounidense does not change for gender, but as always, the appropriate article should be used.


The Neeno, thanks. That was helpful, because I didn't use Americano, so wondered why "hombre" wasn't necessary, since Duo did say American man.


La americana toma cerveza.


The "El" makes him masculine, but I would like to know if a "La" would still be followed by "estadounidense", or if there's some other form like "estadounidensa"? ... Although looking at that the answer is probably no, there is not.


to be correct tecnically, I feel that you need to use something referring to USA, as "American" could also refer to someone from any of the countries in North, Central or South America and, secondly, "United States" could be confused with Mexico (United States of Mexico). Although maybe not coloquially on the last part but technically, yes, it is a little frustrating how "USAians" dont seem to have a specific name that can't be confused with people from other countries.


The moral of the story is that no matter where you're from we all like to drink.


Why not la cerveza?


If you're referring to one specific 'beer', yes, you are right, but the sentence is talking about the beer as general concept. In that sense, the substantives, in Spanish haven't got the article, the same in english.


Is "toma" to be preferred to "bebe" here???


'Beber' is neutral. 'Tomar' has implications of drinking alcohol. There is even stronger (and colloquial) verb: 'chupar' that means exactly drinking alcohol.


I am in Virginia and hear "Americano" a little more than "estadounidense", but the most common by far is " gringo".


Una traduccion mas comun seria "El Americano toma cerveza."


Literalmente sí, pero "American" en inglés se refiere usualmente a "estadounidense" y no a los americanos de todo el gran continento.


Why is not correct that i used the word hombre


My family says "gringos


In Australia, american would usually mean from the US and people from other countries would be referred to as canadians, mexicans, columbians etc. Or we might use north or south american. To use american to refer to someone from the american continent in general you would have to specify that to make it clear. The only other words we have for someone from the US are slang, eg. yanks, and only used in certain circumstances (and regardless of what part of the US).


Why not "el hombre de americano"?


On a different note: I am having a trouble knowing how to use the articles 'el' and 'la' to refer to general nouns. So, I tested the term: 'El estadounidense bebe la cerveza.', to find out if that was acceptable in the same manner as 'La fruta es escarsa.', which can be translated as 'Fruit is scarce.', which was marked correct for that particular exercise. But for this exercise 'El estadounidense bebe la cerveza.' was marked wrong. Is this a Duo glitch, or is it wrong?


That is not a Duo glitch. In that case the Spanish use of the definite article is exactly the same as the English use. In English we use the definite article when we are speaking about a specific one or subset of the whole. Spanish adds one additional case. That case is speaking about the whole set. That is not all the the beer in the house, but all beer in the world. These statements are called generalizations, since we don't even have to believe that we are speaking about the whole set, but that IS the literal meaning of the sentence. One example I have used is the statement Coffee contains caffeine. This would be El café.contiene cafeína in Spanish. This is a generalization that is about ALL coffee. One of the ways I know this is that if I were to make this statement to an argumentative person, he would surely respond with the statement, Not all coffee contains caffeine. These generalizations are taken to refer to the whole set as in all that exists in the world. Obviously there are many times that it actually is not true about ALL, and we often don't really believe it to be so. But in Spanish, making these general statements about the whole set requires the definite article. This means that if a thing is the subject of a sentence, it is probably going to need the definite article. But it is certainly not limited to that. Comparisons of sets, likes and dislikes of the whole set and many other circumstances will require it as well.


Thk-u. I Appreciate your reply. Apologize for the delay. :)


In Costa Rica birra is beer


That is true. But the DLE lists birra as colloquial and sources like SpanishDict don't list it at all. It is almost impossible to teach a language that is spoken in over 20 counties as you would hear it in each of those countries. Duo says it teaches Latin American Spanish which does duffer from the Spanish spoken in Spain by a few significant issues of grammar and pronunciation. But the Spanish spoken in different countries and regions in Latin America also has significant areas of difference. From what I can tell, Duo's Spanish us most closely aligned to Mexican Spanish, which makes sense as Mexico has the largest number of Spanish speakers by a significant margin. One of the main issues had been that Duo's taught coche for car almost exclusively although carro is more common in Mexico, but recently I have seen more carro and auto.


I'm surprised the discussion is not locked.


América no es Estados Unidos, América es América


All my Mexican friends call us gringos. There's worse things that we could ve called, so ill take it.


Gringo means different things in different parts of Latin America. It can mean any foreigners (but generally non Spanish speaking), any American or any fair skinned foreigner or American. And while there certainly are worse things to be called and the term is often used somewhat teasingly, it is hardly complementary.


I live in Texas and always heard americano, but one day a very nice old man translated estadounidense directly when referring to me as a "United States woman." I thought it was pretty cool!


How would you differentiate drink and drinks and drunk


by how empty the bottle is


doesn't accept gringo as correct :)


The English doesn't specify someone from the USA any more than saying americano would in the Spanish... It's just more commonly assumed in English, maybe?


It didn't like "hombre gringo."


Well your biggest problem is that gringo is more often a noun than an adjective. You are not likely to see it modifying a word like hombre, it would most likely replace it. It can be used.to modify some word that conveys additional meaning like jefe, however. Additionally Gringo can simply refer to a foreigner from any non Spanish speaking country, or in some areas a blond or fair-skinned person. Of course in many areas or situations, especially in Mexico where the greatest number of gringo types are "ugly Americans", gringo is used especially to indicate Americans.


Look guys. It is simple. Is there any other country in the world where people use the word American too when they are asked about their nationality. Personally I've never heard any other country member who live in the same continent use the term American. So it is simple. If it is only Us citizens who use this word let us use the same in Spanish to not cause any confusion...


I spend over half the year in Mexico every year and I have never heard a Mexican refer to us as anything other than Americans. My friends sometimes use 'gringo' but not in a pejorative way, at least not in my presence. They NEVER say estadounidenses and to do so would make us stand out even more. And since they are also part of North America, it wouldn't serve any purpose to refer to us as norteamericanos. We are americanos and they are mexicanos.


"They NEVER say estadounidenses..." Well,, that's an awful lot of emphasis on the "never" and I have to wonder if you think your Mexican friends speak for everyone in Latin America or that what you hear them say is anything but anecdotal evidence. .


If you look closely at what I said, I said I have never heard my friends use the word. I didn't say they speak for everyone and I would never presume to speak for all of Mexico either. I can only report what my experience has been. I will say that I have also spent months in Michoacán and DF, and my experience there was the same.

I frequently see posts by people on this forum being upset about the use of the term 'americano,' as though it were a slight to our Latin American neighbors and not PC enough. Many posters have expressed resentment at Duo for using the term. My only point was that the term 'americano' is also used by our nearest neighbors to the south. I'm sorry you were so offended.


I doubt he was offended or failed to comprehend what you wrote. He was merely taking issue with your use of all caps in "never," presumably meant to elevate the value of your anecdote.

Most of us are probably not professional linguists studying this particular issue. However, discussions on this site (and not just this topic) are rife with such anecdotes offered as evidence for or against a particular phrasing. Indeed, I often see requests for "native speakers" to weigh in on many of the issues raised.

While all of that can be entertaining and even illuminating at times, I don't know how much being a native speaker helps. Put another way, if the typical user of this site is no more steeped in grammar and linguistic theory than I (or should that be "me"?), then the views of native speakers are hardly authoritative.


Well said. However, there may be cases, where the opinion of a "native speaker" can help clear up non-native guessing around Duolingo contradictions.


I agree. I am not the average Duo user since I did major in English and Linguistics in College. But for grammar questions that have something closer to a "correct" answer, I tend to do Internet searches. They also get quicker responses. But when I want to know the nuances of any language, talking to native speakers is really the only way to learn them. These are not right or wrong at all, although they may be applicable only to a particular subculture.


I have had discussions with Mexicans about the fact that they are also North Americans, but they still referred to Americans as norteamericanos. I do think that recently this has become less common and may be somewhat generational.


I got dinged for writing "una cerveza"


Since this is one of the circumstances where the use of the indefinite article is the same in both languages, then the small meaning/use differences should be directly translated.


Is 'el hombre americano bebe una cerveza' really wrong, as in would that literally mean just one beer?

In english I read it as in he's drinking beer right now not he drinks beer generally in life. Just wondering


the man drinks beer and the man drinks a beer, these are two difference sentence structures, in the first beer is a non countable class noun, in the second (due to "a") it is a countable noun. Although both sentences have a range of meaning, some of which can overlap, translating the Spanish as having an "a" in the English is incorrect in structure and possible or possible not in meaning


Cool thread people!


All from the United States are American, not all Americans are from the United States.

But...... who doesn't like beer? :)


I was cofused by this because growing upI always herad 'Americans' as 'Americanos' I nerver heard is as 'estadounidense' which one is the proper way of saying it?


I think that the issue is that there has been a feeling among SOME Latin Americans that they were also Americans as inhabitants of the Americas. I learned Norteamericano when I was in School, which made no sense to me as Mexicans are also North Americans. So in that case estadounidense is at least unique. I cannot be sure how much of that attitude did exist or still exists. I think we are taught this only as to not offend anyone. But the bottom line is the whole world calls us Americans or the equivalent in their language, and I think as a practical matter most Latin Americans do as well. Certainly the Spanish do. So, although you should recognize these words, you will probably hear Americans (or gringo) most and you can certainly take your cue from the people you are speaking with.


Thanks for this, this was really helpful


The thing I don't understand is they used the word "American" to describe the man so the word I Spanish should be "Americano". If they wanted us to use the word "estadounidense" then they should have said "The man from the United States"


I basically agree. I think that the argument that Latin Americans don't like or use the word Americans when referring to people from the US is at least outdated. But the problem with your suggestion is we don't have a word for United Statesian. A man from the United States would be translated as Un hombre de Los Estados Unidos. But as there may still be areas or people who avoid calling us Americans, it is important to understand that norteamericano and estadounidense are the words they would use instead.


This is crap, it doesnt say a North American or man from USA it just says American, could be from anywhere in the Americas


You have actually hit upon what was the original reason why some Spanish speakers from Latin America originally came up with these other words. If you say American to almost anyone in the world it means someone from the US. But Latin Americans felt that they were also Americans. So they came up with Norteamericano. Even Mexicans would use that although they are also North American. I would think that estadounidense was better if I could say it. But that's as hard to say as United Statesian. I do believe much of the resistance to American has gone away, though. But you will still hear it, so it is worth understanding the background.


Perhaps it is a lesson to teach us the difference if we are filling out a form, but thanks for confirming what I suspected. Since it was el and americana should have ended in o, it does make me wrong.


Why is 'man' written but 'hombre' is not allowed? Doesn't make sense to me.


In Spanish the adjective the adjective is generally used without the word man or woman if it describes an obvious trait. El gordo the fat man; la vieja the old woman, etc. We cannot drop those in English. We can drop man in English but it would be less specifically descriptive.


I get it now thank you. Estadounidense to me isn't so obvious as it doesn't change to indicate gender, only the word before it gives you a hint.

Someone else might find the following link useful:



Why can't "bebe" be correct here ?


If bebe wasn't accepted for you, report it. It is correct and still the answer shown above. But just so you know, tomar is indeed more common for this sort of sentence.


Why is 'hombre' missinh


In Spanish adjectives which show gender are often used as nouns and therefore drop hombre, mujer, and other such words. Examples include all nationalities like Mexicano and Columbiana as well as many personal attributes that most Americans would consider more insulting (but aren't really on Spanish) like El gordo or la vieja. Adding hombre or mujer here is unnecessary and native speakers would find it quite strange.


united stadian sounds so dumb when Americano sounds grammatically acceptable


Gringo, Yanki, estadounidense, norte americano


I typed in the answer and it said it was wrong but it said the exact same thing!


I thought the coreect term was Gringo


Gringo is at best slang. It can be pejorative, it can simply refer to a fairer skinned person or a non hispanohablante. It varies by country. It used to be that Latim Americana preferred Norteamicano over Americano, even those from Mexico which is also in North America. Estadounidense is a newer word, I.thimk,to refer to Americans. It hardly flows off my tongue, but it does it is a specific and unique identifier. My impression is that many Latin Americans do refer to Americans as Americanos, but you should be aware that many Latin Americans may still resent that term.


i was kidding dude


Two for two. I'm not a dude


it doesnt say man here, it just says estadouindense. in the wrong answer it says man. wHAT


American and other adjectives of nationality are actually among the adjectives that we routinely use as a freestanding noun. In fact, the only real reason we would say American man would be to distinguish it from an American woman or child. But in Spanish, adjectives are often used as nouns describing a person. And since the word itself generally shows the gender or it is shown in the article, they don't need to add the man or woman. So all you need to do is say El estadounidense or el norteamericano instead of La estadounidense or La norteamericana to indicate man or woman. It isn't perhaps as obvious with American since, as I said, we do use that as a stand alone, but this same principle applies with the various adjectives that you will find standing alone in Spanish which you can't really translate without adding man or woman. You will often see things like El gordo para or La vieja sonrisa. (The fat man stops or the old woman smiles). That is where this will serve you best.


Couldn't find the word man. It is, like, sooooo annoying when you can't find a word and then afterwards it all makes sense


It is something you do have to keep in mind. We do it in English with nationalities as well, although not consistently, but we would never say The old and leave off woman or fat and leave off man (or vice versa) but that is actually quite common in Spanish. La vieja. El gordo.


Seriously, does anybody use the word "estadounidense?"


Yes. It actually is the only word that makes real sense if you take the Latin American perspective that they are all Americans too. When I went to Mexico for the first time over 40 years ago I was taught norteamericano/a, but that makes as little sense as American as Mexico and all the Central American countries are also part of North America. And Spanish isn't shy of long words. Just look at desafortunadamente. There's a reasonable amount of anti-American sentiment, so you will see gringo, of course. But certainly in any international context it might be used. El delegado estadounidense. The American (US) delegate. I know when I am in a situation talking to people from different countries I often say I am from the US instead of saying I am an American. Even outside of the Latin American attitudes about the word, it seems to me that the whole world has endowed the word with a lot of extra stuff. Since I know that some people do get upset that we have sort of co-opted the word American and I think saying norteamericano doesn't help anything, this is actually what I say. I must confess that I haven't quite learned to let it trip off my tongue yet.



I have a problem with a lot of things in this section and I've only done 10 questions! Americans include Candadians and Mexicans. No-one refers to themself as a north Amecian, you would say Canadian, or (improperly but widely used) American. Estadounidense means American (male and female), not just American man.


It's time for The United States of America to come up with a better country name, containing at least one word that isn't shared by another country or continent.


Try deciding if you’re from Great Britain, the British Isles or the United Kingdom!


Yeah, even in Sicily there are at least nine dialects (some of them possibly languages on their own). Nothing to say about wonderful Italy herself!

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