"You must learn to listen to the teacher."
Translation:Rhaid i ti ddysgu gwrando ar yr athro.
One of the most common is after a preposition.
In this example 'i'
The first part of the sentence is 'Nesessity for learning' = 'Rhaid i ddysgu' with a softening after the 'i'
We put the pronoun (or name) in to give it context but that doesn't change the effect on the verb.
An more obvious example of softening after a preposition would be 'Dw i'n mynd i ddysgu' = 'I am going to learn'
There are a number of other prepositions that soften a following verb, it's best to learn them in context rather than in isolation.
There is no dysgu i. Whatever is being learned/taught generally follows directly after dysgu with no preposition.
- Mae hi'n dysgu Almaeneg. - She is learning German.
Prepositions may be needed in related patterns:
- Dysgodd hi Siân i yrru. - She taught Siân to drive
- Roedd hi'n dysgu mewn ysgol. - She was teaching at a school.
- Roedd hi'n dysgu Cymraeg i siaradwyr Sbaeneg ym Mhatagonia. - She was teaching Welsh to Spanish speakers in Patagonia.
- Dw i'n dysgu sut i bobi. - I am learning how to bake.
- dysgu am rywbeth - learning about something
"i" before verb nouns is at least partly determined by what comes before... mynd i, but dod o. Also whether to introduce a clause with i+VN vs bod - we have that confusion in English too and native speakers have no trouble navigating it, but I would be hard pressed to explain my choice sometimes.
Another one I have trouble with is whether to use "o" vs relying on the genitive structure - because they seem to have the same meaning to me - but fluent Welsh speakers clearly know which to use in a given situation.
The thing about gwrando ar etc. is that verbs take specific prepositions for specific meanings. Essentially, the preposition doesn't mean anything, but instead marks the case of the noun that follows. (There are other situations where the meaning of preposition is important - so this really is confusing).
gwrando and gwylio take ar for the object of the listening or watching.
mynd takes i for the place you're going or action you're going to do, but â for the person/thing you're taking with you.
edrych takes am for the thing you're looking for, but ar for the thing you're looking at - and of course that shows that we do the same thing in English: look for vs. look at.
I'm still learning which preposition to use in many cases - the above are just a few that I have nailed down pretty well.