Of course Polish does make a distinction with "ten" being for something close and "tamten" for something far. It just doesn't exactly match with the English usage. For simplicity let's just say that the border between "ten" and "tamten" is further away from the observer than between "this" and "that".
You can check my newly written (autopromotion!) guide on such things here, and check Part Three.
Although I can imagine "Ten pan jest wysokim" could be used in speech, as it implies "This gentleman is a tall (man/human)" (jest wysokim mężczyzną/człowiekiem) - but as far as I know, it wouldn't be in fact grammatically correct.
EDIT after two months: such an option seems less probable to me now than when I was writing this comment originally. So better avoid such constructions.
Well, "To jest wysoki mężczyzna" just means "This is a tall man", "To jest wysoki pan" would have its first translation here as "This is a tall gentleman".
It's hard to find an English translation that will show the difference between them. But most of the sentences with "pan/pani" meaning "man/woman" and not being formal 'You' sound (to me) a bit as if they are said by a parent to a 7-year-old child.
It's hard to find contexts. For example if you say "Ja stałam przed tym panem" (I was in front of this man) when getting back to the queue, it will definitely be a lot more natural than using "mężczyzną", which would somehow seem absurd. Frankly, using "pan" could only be evaluated on specific sentences, because it is really hard to generalize in any way.
Also unless the conversation is formal, "facet" (guy) or "gość" (also "guy", but literally "guest") are quite likely to be used.