ten can mean that or this...there is not such a clear distinction in polish as far as i'm aware!
Of course Polish does make a distinction with "ten" being for something close and "tamten" for something far. It just doesn't exactly match with the English usage. For simplicity let's just say that the border between "ten" and "tamten" is further away from the observer than between "this" and "that".
You can check my newly written (autopromotion!) guide on such things here, and check Part Three.
Although I can imagine "Ten pan jest wysokim" could be used in speech, as it implies "This gentleman is a tall (man/human)" (jest wysokim mężczyzną/człowiekiem) - but as far as I know, it wouldn't be in fact grammatically correct.
EDIT after two months: such an option seems less probable to me now than when I was writing this comment originally. So better avoid such constructions.
No. "Ten pan jest wysoki" = "This man (gentleman) is tall".
"Pan jest wysoki" = "You are tall, sir".
So the pronoun "ten" changes a lot here.
this is a tall man. ( why the sistem returned this answer as wrong?) should be correct. Am I wrong?
We make the distinction between "This is a tall man." and "This man is tall". They may be almost the same in meaning, but they are different sentences grammatically.
By that token, would it be correct to say, "To jest wysoki pan," or would it have to be "To jest wysoki mężczyzna"?
Well, "To jest wysoki mężczyzna" just means "This is a tall man", "To jest wysoki pan" would have its first translation here as "This is a tall gentleman".
It's hard to find an English translation that will show the difference between them. But most of the sentences with "pan/pani" meaning "man/woman" and not being formal 'You' sound (to me) a bit as if they are said by a parent to a 7-year-old child.
it might be a regional thing or something, but for me "pan" used as "man" does not sound like talking to a child, just a normal conversation. (but while "ten pan jest wysoki" sounds ok, "to jest wysoki pan" is weird)
It's hard to find contexts. For example if you say "Ja stałam przed tym panem" (I was in front of this man) when getting back to the queue, it will definitely be a lot more natural than using "mężczyzną", which would somehow seem absurd. Frankly, using "pan" could only be evaluated on specific sentences, because it is really hard to generalize in any way.
Also unless the conversation is formal, "facet" (guy) or "gość" (also "guy", but literally "guest") are quite likely to be used.
I understand that "pan" means "gentleman" but is there another word for "gentleman," as in a man who is nice?
A literal translation of "gentleman" is the polonized version "dżentelmen" (yes it is singular despite the 'men' part, it's kind of a phonetic borrowing). Plural is "dżentelmeni".
Any thoughts on translating "pan" as "guy" in this context? Perhaps it's too informal. Marked wrong for me.
Why "this sir is tall" is not accepted? "sir" is even in list of words for "pan" in this exercise