Latin for Duolingo: Adverbs, Lesson 1
Salvete omnes! Welcome back to Latin for Duolingo. This totally unofficial series of Latin lessons has been going on for over a year now, as we wait for the noble classical language to make its way into the Duolingo incubator. If you would like to catch up with previous lessons, you can find a directory of lessons, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at these links:
- Directory of Lessons
- Vocabulary List
- Memrise course for vocabulary
- Memrise course with sentences created by zsocipuszmak
- Previous lesson, Verbs Present 2.4
Thanks for being patient while I took some time off to celebrate my son’s graduation and wrap up my own school year. This lesson will focus on adverbs. We’ve already encountered several:
bene = well
cras = tomorrow
cur = why
heri = yesterday
hodie = today, on this day
male = badly
mane = morning, in the morning
-ne (enclitic/particle) = question mark / turns a statement into a question
non = not
nonne = introduces a question expecting a “yes” answer (lit. “is it not so?”)
num = introduces a question expecting a “no” answer
pridie = the day before (used with acc.)
quando = when, at what time
quo = where to, where, whither
quomodo = how, in what way
ubi = where
vespere/vesperi (adv. or abl. s.) = in the evening, at evening time
As in many languages, there is a certain amount of fluidity between adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions; and in Latin, some cases of nouns are essentially adverbial. Parsing this out completely for you is above my pay grade... just be aware that dictionaries and texts may occasionally vary on classifying these words, and some can be used in multiple ways. To make it more confusing, it is fairly common in Latin syntax for adjectives to be used where we would use adverbs in English, e.g. Tutus domum venit. = He comes home safely (literally- He comes home, safe).
Formation of adverbs is usually but not always related to the adjective form if there is one. 1st/2nd declension adjectives, like malus, a, um (bad) tend to have an adverbial form ending in –e: male = badly. 3rd declension adjectives like fortis, e (strong, brave) tend to have an adverbial form ending in –(i)ter: fortiter = strongly, bravely. But of course there are many, many adverbs that do not follow these “rules.”
celeriter = quickly, swiftly, fast
diu = for a long time
fortiter = strongly, bravely
hic = here
ibi (also eo, illic, illuc) = there
jam/iam = already, now
longe = far, by far
numquam = never
nunc = now
saepe = often, frequently, usually
semper = always
Ubi Gaius habitat? Gaius ibi habitat. = Where does Gaius live? Gaius lives there.
Ibi diebus Veneris edimus. = We eat there on Fridays.
Paula et Lucia illic eunt. = Paula and Lucia go (over) there.
Numquam illic eo. = I never go there.
Nunc aut numquam. = Now or never.
Hic et nunc. = Here and now.
Nunc aestas (ad)est. = Now it is summer.
Venisne hic saepe? = Do you come here often?
Pater saepe ridet. = Dad often laughs.
Non saepe fleo. = I don’t usually cry/ I seldom cry.
Gaius semper esurit. = Gaius is always hungry.
Cur semper id agis? = Why do you always do that?
Ubi es? Hic adsum. = Where are you? I am here/ right here.
Pueri puellaeque jam adveniunt. = The boys and girls are already arriving.
Marcus diu dormit. = Marcus sleeps for a long time.
Marcus longe currit. = Marcus runs far/ for a long way.
Marcus celeriter currit. = Marcus runs fast/ swiftly.
Milites fortiter pugnant. = The soldiers fight bravely.
Paula bene, sed Gaius male scribit. = Paula writes well, but Gaius writes badly.
Tempus celeriter fugit. = Time passes quickly/ Time swiftly flies.
Jam novi. = I already know.
Pueri jam in scholā sunt. = The boys are in school now/already.
Vinum non jam habemus. = We no longer have wine/ We’re out of wine.
Lucia puella non jam est, sed femina. = Lucia is no longer a girl, but a woman.
Here’s a fun song on Youtube that has some of these adverbs, plus animals and even onomatopoeias: Horatius villam habet I hope you enjoy it! I should be back next week with more adverbs.
Next lesson: Adverbs 2
Tibi gratias ago! Here, they don't sing Gaudeamus Igitur but instead the college's Alma Mater song, whatever that may be (probably Gaudeamus Igitur was the original for that tradition!) I won't inflict the lyrics on you but the marching band version is kind of fun. It's my Alma Mater as well as my son's, so it has sentimental associations for me. The Commencement speaker is generally someone fairly prominent who can give an inspiring and entertaining speech; Dr. Ben Carson, a former presidential candidate, was the speaker this year. Then the mob scene of goodbyes and parties and packing up the dorm rooms. It's all rather anticlimactic, but a very happy weekend overall.