To your question Rowanas, from a grammatical standpoint the word minority in those two sentences are different. In "a minority of people", minority is a noun, whereas in "minority people", minority is an adjective. I'm just learning Polish so I'm not an authority on the language, but according to Wiktionary, mniejszość is a noun, so probably could not be used to form the meaning you specified. Also, the form of the word ludzie in the sentence is "ludzi" which is Genitive and gives the meaning "of people" rather than just "people". If you were to say "minority people", the word people would have to be Nominative ("Ludzie").
You mean people of ethnic/religious/etc. minorities? Well, that would rather need specifying the minority, because that's not an idea which is in wide use in Poland and our language, we're a very homogenous country. I'd say for example "Marsjanie w Polsce nie pracują" (Martians in Poland do not work).
I agree that the Polish sentence is weird, it's just hard to find a context to use the word 'minority', obviously it would be more natural to say that "The majority of people does work", because that's basically what the sentence means, it's just written from a totally different side.
Thanks, the point is that there can only be one majority in a collection of objects as there are necessarily more than half in the majority, which is why you have "the majority" but there can be lots of different minorities which is why it is "a minority". This is the mathematician side coming out from me!
It seems to depend on your dialect. Both "does not" and "do not" are accepted.
One of my colleagues also wrote this:
In this case that "minority" is not uniform and does not act as one. Different people do not work for different reasons. I would leave "do not" (as the main answer).