Hm. No, today definetely not (I don't know if we could accept it when said about pre 20th century Germany). It's either: Niemcy są bogatymi ludźmi (The Germans are wealthy people) or Niemcy są bogatym krajem (Germany is a wealthy country).
This plural is the oldest way of creating countries names. Today we still have: Niemcy (Germany) vs Niemiec (a German), Czechy (Czechia) and Czech, Włochy (Italy) and Włoch), Węgry (Hungary) and Węgier, Prusy (Prussia, historical country) and Prus or Prusak.
Historically there were also Bawory (Bavaria), Szwaby (Swabia) Multany (Multenia, part of Romania), Rakuzy (Austria), Turki (?) (locative w Turczech, Turkey), Szwajcary (locative. Szwajcarzech, Switzerland), Gryzony (Grabunden in Switzerland), Francuzy (France). Today this is mostly replaced by latin -ia ending.
So is it Niemcy są... when talking about the country? Or Niemcy jest...?
Weird naming convention for countries you have in the Polish language! Germany is "Germans," Poland is "Polish [feminine]." So in the locative case, is it "I am in the Germans"? "I am in the Polish"?
It's so hard for me to wrap my mind around this concept.
Both the nation's name and its people, if you speak about more than one German, have to be addressed in the Plural.
As for your second paragraph's second line, I think you are mistaken. or maybe I misunderstood you. However, there is a male and a female name for the citizen of Poland: “Polak” (m), “Polska” (f). Same for the Germans of both biological sexes: “Niemiec” (m) and “Niemka” (f). Still, I do not understand your runner-up question, maybe you can elaborate on this or will have to wait for a moderator to answer it. I just thought I could help quickly as I saw your comment in my inbox.
Me too, as is the case for every new subject in this course. The Slavic languages are indeed a marvellous world to discover.
Also, good luck with Russian, I still have to officially begin with this language, but as I do not have a Cyrillic keyboard, I backed away from doing so.
To answer your question about the locative case:
Zakochałem się w Polsce (nominative: Polska) - I fell in love in/with Poland
Zakochałem się w polce (nominative: polka) - I fell in love with a Polish woman
Zakochałem się w Niemczech (nominative: Niemcy) - I fell in love in/with Germany
Zakochałem się w Niemcach (nominative: niemcy) - I fell in love with Germans
So, there is almost no ambiguity here.
Ok, but adjectives have a different declension pattern than nouns. So, if you had chosen the adjective, you would have ended up with w polskiej.
And that wouldn't make sense as a standalone phrase, only in a context which implies a noun:
- Widziałeś to w niemieckiej telewizji?
- Nie, w polskiej.
I'd say that two different (although definitely connected) words just happen to look (almost) the same. It's rather by accident.
Sure, "Germany" is "Niemcy" and "Germans" are also "Niemcy".
But then "Hungary" is "Węgry" and "Hungarians" are "Węgrzy".
The fact that "Polska" is "Poland" and "polska" is a feminine adjective for Polish is also rather just by chance, -ska is a basic adjective ending. Or if there's logic in calling our country that, it's hidden somewhere centuries ago ;)
Yes, true. He is Russian. Or he is a Russian, same thing in English. Both noun and adjective. Русский/русская/русские are ethnic Russians. But there is also Он россиянин. He is a Russian (from the country of Russia). Citizens of Russia are россияне, but русские have Russian blood.
Немец то немецкий человек.
The USA should be Amerykańcy