No, it is neuter. If you see a noun ending with -o, you are safe to assume it's neuter.
Its not translating this sentence into english. I assune its "The small girl eats small apples." also if the noun is neuter the ending is małe?
Almost: "The small girl eats a small apple".
Yes, apple is neuter, so the adjective ends with -e and it's "małe" here.
"ta" is a translation of "this", not "the".
"the" could be 'interpreted' as "ta" (as often "the" is more like "this"), but it's not a translation.
"A little girl" and "The little girl" are the same from the point of view of Polish.
Isn't 'mała dziewczynka' 'the little little girl'? Wouldn't you rather use either 'mała dziewczyna' or 'dziewczynka'
I also was confused with the "little little girl". So "dziewczynka" translates only to a young girl and not to a girl who is petite in size?
I think a young, but adult woman who is just 'petite' could take offense in being called "dziewczynka".
For mały it's somewhere between sound "i", like in english "me", and sound ''e'' like in english ''bet''. While ''małe'' is without that ''i''. At least I think so.