"I would be with you if I could."
Translation:Byłabym z tobą, gdybym mogła.
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You are correct, the reason is the magical word 'gdy' (which normally means 'when', but it can't be used to form questions). In conditional mood, as here, it works for "if" and it steals the ending from the verb ;)
So "gdy + mógłbym" = "gdybym mógł", "gdy" + "mogliby" = "gdyby mogli", and so on. It's obligatory in this meaning. "gdy mógłbym" is possible, but it means literally "when I could" (when I would be able to), not "if I could".
Gdybym is composed of three elements:
gdy = if (conjunction)
-by- ≈ would (conditional particle)
-m (first person singular suffix)
Here is a detailed explanation of how English Type II conditional sentences are translated into Polish.