"I am called" is incorrect, because that would translate to אני נקרא or אני קרוי (which nobody uses to introduce themselves). If you want to translate קוראים לי literally you should write "they call me", though that sounds weird. But קוראים לי is really one of those phrases that no longer has much to do with the literal meaning. It just means "my name is".
Well, "I am called" isn't incorrect, it's just not literal. A lot of colloquialisms are better translated non-literally, as the literal translation would sound off or be completely meaningless in another language. Granting "They call me..." Doesn't sound that weird in English. It's used in movies by rough, mysterious figures.
Hello, my name is Yossi. - that would translate: שלום, שמי יוסי
שלום, קוראים לי יוסי - this can not be translated literally in English--> "hello …. calls me yossi" / in Dutch one would translate: "hallo MEN noemt mij yossi".
English does not have a word for "men" (as in Dutch).
I think "I am called Yossi" comes closer than: "Hello, my name is Yossi"
and I think that both of them should be approved
because both translations are a bit "unlike", which can not be otherwise because it can not be translated literally.
An interesting alteration. The original English is an imperative and immediately suggests an ambiguity about the character, questioning whether it is his real name, and why he refers to himself by that. It also connects the reader to the biblical character. The new translation קוראים לי ישמעאל changes the intent of the opening line. Instead of having the narrator say "Call me Ishmael", casting himself into the story, he now says "They call me Ishmael", suggesting that others interpret him as such, but that he sees himself as distanced from such. I wonder why they changed the translation, and who authorized it. Ishmael's role in Moby Dick is central, as narrator and as contrast with Ahab. Just as Ishmael plays an important role in contrast with Isaac, Abraham's second son. But, that's a whole nuther story.
In Spanish "Me llama Yosi" means "Yosi calls me". Maybe this was a typo for "Me llamo Yosi" (literally "I call myself Yossi", but meaning "My name is Yossi") or, as you correctly pointed out, "Mi nombre es Yosi," which is much more formal. In Hebrew, you could say "Sh'mi Yossi" (Meaning "My name is Yossi") or "Korim li Yossi" (literally "They call me Yossi", but meaning "My name is Yossi.") I don't know enough Hebrew to know if one is more formal than the other. "Hashem sheli Yossi" (literally " The name of me is Yossi", is technically correct, but I don't think anybody would say that.)
I think because in English, a single letter "s" between two vowels is often pronounced as "z", like in "rose", or in the full name "Joseph" so to avoid ambiguity, it's spelled with double s.
On other occasions, double letters in English are used when a letter has a dagesh in Hebrew, like שבת, which is transliterated as "shabbat".