"הנגב נמצא בדרום ארץ ישראל."
Translation:The Negev is in the southern land of Israel.
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Actually, נגב itself just means south. נגבהּ means "to the south", and is a relic of a rich system of gramattical cases which semitic-language nouns once had, it is the so-called "lative case" - an ending which means "to ...". We still use this lative case in very specific words like "הביתה" (to home), צפונה (to the north), etc. But not on general nouns (you cannot say "השולחנה" for "to the table" or "ישראלה" for "to Israel").
Yeah no. אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל is either a religious term or a geographic one, and as the latter it is translated as the originally Hellenic term ‘Palestine’. ‘Israel’, on the other hand, is a political entity.
EDIT: Stop this mass downvoting. This is just a discussion of dry technical terms.