"שלום אמא, מה שלומךְ?"
Translation:Hello mom, how are you?
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The reason the ending kha (final khaf with kamats vowel under it) is the masc is that it is for "you" masc, which by now you probably know is אתה ata, ending vowel being kamats. Fem מה שלומך ma shlomeikh ending in a final khaf with a shva vowel is the same as the ending vowel of the fem for "you" which is "at" and ends with shva under the tav.
Because the letter Aleph א is a glottal stop/silent, if we were going to write it with Niqqud (Vowels) it would be written as אִמָא, any vowel can be attached to Aleph, the word for mother in Hebrew is אֵם “Eim”. Often to avoid confusion, auxiliary letters ו and י are used to represent u/o and “i” sounds respectively