Latin for Duolingo: Adverbs, Lesson 2
Salvete omnes! Welcome back to Latin for Duolingo. This totally unofficial series of Latin lessons has been going on for over a year now, as we wait for the noble classical language to make its way into the Duolingo incubator. If you would like to catch up with previous lessons, you can find a directory of lessons, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at these links:
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- Previous lesson: Adverbs 1
This week, we continue to add adverbs to our vocabulary. Some of the adverbs relating to time (soon, then, first, etc.) will be used more commonly with tenses other than the present, but we’ll have to make do with the present for now, and I have only limited sample sentences at this point. Also note that I won’t be teaching comparative adjectives or adverbs yet; where we would say in English, “very (adjective)”, the Latin would normally use a superlative adjective form instead. Latin does use intensifying adverbs like “valde” and “multum,” but not as frequently as we do in English. Please also note that some of this lesson’s adverbs can cross over and be neuter nouns or adjectives; nimis, multum, satis, parum are commonly used as nouns; as nouns, they are usually accompanied by the genitive: too much, a lot, enough, too little OF something. The difficulty of constructing conversational sentences is that there are many cases where I’m not sure if the Latin syntax I’m presenting is authentic and true to the classical literature; I’m doing my best but welcome any suggestions if you want to leave them as comments.
facile = easily
foris = outside, outdoors
inde = from there, from then
intus (intro) = inside, indoors, in the house
ita = so, thus
iterum = again, for the second time
mox = soon
multum = much, very much, greatly, very, frequently, “a lot” (n.b. can also be used as a neuter noun, with the genitive)
nimis (nimius, nimium) = too much, excessively (often with genitive)
parum = too little, not enough (n.b. can also be used as an indeclinable neuter noun, with the genitive)
primum = at first, first of all, in the first place
rursus = again, back
satis, sat = enough, sufficiently (n.b can also be used as a neuter noun, with the genitive)
sic = so, thus, in such a manner
tum (tunc) = then, at that time
ubique = everywhere
unde = from where?, whence?
ut (adv.) = how, in what way, as (we’ll encounter ut again in the future, as a conjunction meaning “in order that”, but it is also used commonly as an adverb)
valde = greatly, very
vero = in truth, truly, in fact
Magister mox advenit. = The teacher is arriving soon.
Tempus cenae mox est. = Dinner time (the time of dinner) is soon. Liberi intus manent. = The children stay indoors.
Paula intus it. = Paula goes indoors.
Miles foris dormit. = The soldier sleeps outdoors.
Gaius et Marcus foris laborant. = Gaius and Marcus are working outside.
Unde venis? = Where do you come from?
Domus mea est in Americā. Inde venio. = My home is in America. I come from there.
Formicae ubique sunt. = Ants are everywhere.
Cum “mu mu” hic et “mu mu” illic; hic “mu,” illic “mu,” ubique “mu mu.” = With a “moo moo” here and a “moo moo” there; here a “moo,” there a “moo,” everywhere a “moo moo.”
Epistulam iterum lego. = I read the letter again.
Lucia domum rursus venit. = Lucia comes home again.
Puer rursus rogat. = The boy asks again.
Facile vincunt. = They win easily.
Primum ambulat, tum currit. = First he walks, then he runs.
Primum, cibum volo. = First of all, I want food.
Ita (est). = Yes/ It is so.
Ita vero. = Yes indeed.
Homo semper sic agit. = The man always does so.
Lucia sic scribit. = Lucia writes in this way/like this.
Ut vales? (Quid agis?) = How are you? Ut mater tua valet? = How is your mother (doing)?
Marcus est, ut dicunt, rara avis. = Marcus is, as they say, a rare bird.
Ut pater dicit, ita filii faciunt. = As the father says, so the sons do.
Gaius valde esurit. = Gaius is very hungry.
Viri valde sitiunt. = The men are very thirsty.
Valde pulchra est. = She is very beautiful.
Tu mihi valde/multum places. = I like you very much.
Multum laborat. = He is working a lot.
Multum vini bibit. (Multum vinum bibit). = He drinks a lot of wine/He drinks much wine. (The first sentence has multum as a neuter noun; the second has it as an adjective modifying vinum. Both are acceptable.)
Satis cibi habet. = He has enough food.
Non satis dormit. = He doesn’t sleep enough.
Satis bene intellego. = I understand well enough.
Satin’ (satisne) bene? = Are you all right/well enough?
Nimis bibit. = He drinks too much.
Nimis vini bibit. = He drinks too much wine.
Multum bibit. = He drinks very much/ a lot.
Marcus satis aquae bibit, sed tu parum bibis. = Marcus drinks enough water, but you drink too little.
Parum pecuniae habeo. = I do not have enough money/ I have too little money.
Primum, non nocere. = First, do no harm. (Hippocrates gave this as an ethical guideline for doctors)
Natura valde simplex est et sibi consona. = Nature is exceedingly simple and harmonious with itself. (Sir Isaac Newton)
Multum, non multa. = Much, not many things. Used to promote a philosophy of learning where “less is more” and students study fewer subjects, but more deeply.
Verbum sapienti sat est. = A word to the wise is sufficient.
Multum adverborum in hac lectione habemus! (We have a lot of adverbs in this lesson). It’s at least two lessons’ worth, I think. I would like to move on to something else with the next lesson. There are more adverbs but it might be better to wait and introduce them in context as they come up, or do another adverbs lesson later on. For the present, valete et habete bonam fortunam!
Next lesson: Demonstratives, lesson 1
It's actually "sibi consona," where consonus, a, um is a related adjective meaning harmonious... although I think "consonat" would work too, but it's not in the original quote. As to why the dative is used for the reflexive pronoun, I think of it as "being in harmony with or to itself." There is some evidence elsewhere that [consona[(http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0059%3Aalphabetic+letter%3DC%3Aentry+group%3D93%3Aentry%3Dconsonus) can be used with a dative. I don't usually analyze the grammar enough to go into the many different uses of the dative, but some places do: see here - it might be the "dative of fitness," but I'm not going to bet on it. Allen &Greenough is a well-respected source.