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  5. "Ar ôl ymddeol es i i America…

"Ar ôl ymddeol es i i America."

Translation:After retiring I went to America.

June 22, 2016



"after I retired" was marked wrong. ???


That would be more "Ar ôl i mi ymddeol..."

  • 2539

As already mentioned there is no pronoun in the Welsh above so it's referring to 'retiring' as a general activity rather than 'my retirement'.

To refer to a person the pronoun is necessary here:-

After I retired = Ar ôl i fi(SW)/mi(NW) ymddeol (SW = South Wales, NW = North Wales)

After you(familiar) retired = Ar ôl i ti ymddeol

After we retired = Ar ôl i ni ymddeol



Although no pronoun is used here, "after I retired" should be accepted, as the meaning in this sentence is semantically equivalent to "after retiring". There should rather be an "another translation:..." message.


I completely agree with you.

  • 2539

The difference is subtle agreed, but the point of the exercise is to teach the use of the pronoun in the 'ar ôl.......' construction and the pronoun in the Welsh should correspond with the pronoun in the English and vice versa,


I am very confused by those "es i i". Could someone explain their grammatical functions and roles in this sentence, please?

  • 2539

You split it into 2 parts:-

es i = I went ; the short past form of the verb to go

i = to, a preposition

Therefore:- es i i America = I went to America


'I went to...'

  • es - verb, '(I) went' (first person singular, simple past tense of dod)
  • i - subject pronoun, 'I'
  • i - preposition, 'to' (followed by a soft mutation)


Well, maybe you could also explain why pronoun "I" sometimes is "i", other times "fi"? (if I haven't miss more). Somehow the welsh for me is hardest to grasp (even harder than turkish or vietnamese). I blame the elusive and morphing pronouns.


In the usual colloquial language, the subject pronoun used in association with a verb is i - this is the main one to remember. It is also used with some prepositions. For example:

  • dw i - I am
  • bydda i - I will be
  • es i - I went
  • gwnes i - I did/made
  • arna i - on me
  • *amdana i - about me
  • gen i - by me (or indicating possession)

As a standalone pronoun, or when used with some other prepositions, it is usually fi. fi is also often used with some other prepositions. For example:

  • fi - me (as a standalone pronoun)
  • gyda fi - (together) with me (or indicating possession in some dialects)
  • efo fi - (together) with me (in some dialects)
  • fi biau... - I own... (biau is a very irregular verb)
  • i fi (or i mi) - to me

However, you will sometimes find fi used in place of i in some situations or in some dialects. There can be quite a wide overlap.

Things are different in the more formal registers of Welsh, and also in some very casual use of the language, but this course does not cover either of those.

[The word mi also has another use in some dialects, not as a pronoun, that you will meet in other parts of the course]

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