"Kosz" is an interesting word to me. Here it means basket - but I am sure that I learned this word when someone pointed to a small garbage!! So if it's a "waste basket" or small garbage bin - it could also be referred to as "kosz" or just a basket without saying it was for garbage (because it's obvious). :) I hope that made some sense! :) (so interesting)
Expect you would rather use 'koszyk' in most cases when referring to a basket. 'Kosz', for me, is by default associated with a garbage bin, unless the context is known. I'd definitely translate this sentence as 'into the garbage/waste/whatever bin'. Also usually you 'wrzucasz coś do kosza' = 'throw' instead of 'wkładasz'. But you're right, 'kosz' has quite a broad meaning.
Mom is putting/puts bread into the bread basket -
Mama wkłada/kładzie chleb do koszyka na chleb
Mom is putting/puts bread into the (shopping) basket - Mama wkłada/kładzie chleb do koszyka (na zakupy)
Mom is putting/puts bread in trash/the garbage (bin) -
Mama wyrzuca chleb do śmieci/do kosza (na śmieci)
1) The main interpretation is simply "a basket"
2) In Polish "kosz" may be "kosz na śmieci" (trash can), but if I wanted to be as clear as you that I'm putting the bread in the trash (and I don't want to be clear about that because that's really only an interpretation and not translation) I'd use the word "śmieci" (trash) or "śmietnik" (trash can). And also not a vague "wkłada" (puts) but "wrzuca/wyrzuca" (throws/throws away).
To avoid confusion, the Polish sentence should be:
"Moja mama wkłada chleb do koszyka". Otherwise,
the idiomatic phrase "do kosza" may require a verb
"wyrzuca" (not translation of "kosz" into the "basket")
It is because there are actually two basic meanings:
- do kosza - into the big basket (big container/bin)
- do kosza (idiom)/do kosza na śmieci/do kubła (na śmieci)/na śmieci/śmietnik - in the trash/garbage
Dała mu/Podała mu kosz - She gave him a big basket
Dała mu kosza - She... refused his marriage proposal