"Kosz" is an interesting word to me. Here it means basket - but I am sure that I learned this word when someone pointed to a small garbage!! So if it's a "waste basket" or small garbage bin - it could also be referred to as "kosz" or just a basket without saying it was for garbage (because it's obvious). :) I hope that made some sense! :) (so interesting)
Expect you would rather use 'koszyk' in most cases when referring to a basket. 'Kosz', for me, is by default associated with a garbage bin, unless the context is known. I'd definitely translate this sentence as 'into the garbage/waste/whatever bin'. Also usually you 'wrzucasz coś do kosza' = 'throw' instead of 'wkładasz'. But you're right, 'kosz' has quite a broad meaning.
"My mother is putting the bread in the trash." This should be accepted. In my region, people say "the trash" and almost never "trash bin" or anything like that.
I don't think it's a trash bin in this sentence, because than we'd probably not use "wkłada", which implies putting something more or less carefully, but rather "wrzuca" - throwing inside, or "wyrzuca" which by itself implies throwing 'away'.
Well, 'trash bin' is at least "kosz" in a way, "the trash" is getting too far from the original sentence, it's an interpretation and not a translation.
How so? Where I am from, "the trash" is what we call it. "Throw it in the trash." If I would add anything to that, I would say trash can. But I don't remember the last time I said that because everyone just says, "the trash."
1) The main interpretation is simply "a basket"
2) In Polish "kosz" may be "kosz na śmieci" (trash can), but if I wanted to be as clear as you that I'm putting the bread in the trash (and I don't want to be clear about that because that's really only an interpretation and not translation) I'd use the word "śmieci" (trash) or "śmietnik" (trash can). And also not a vague "wkłada" (puts) but "wrzuca/wyrzuca" (throws/throws away).
I do not doubt that it is an unlikely interpretation, but I do disagree with accepting "trash can" but rejecting "the trash" because they are synonyms. I propose two possible solutions:
• Delete the "trash can" option
• Add "the trash" as an option
I used the word placing instead of putting however it was not accepted... are they not synonyms that can be used interchangeable for 'wkłada'?