You could translate it like that into English, but unless speaking of a specific summer (and this sentence seems to me to be about generic summers) English speakers would tend to omit the definite article. Hebrew speakers would not.
Hey, DuoLingo, here are a few more ways that native speakers of English might say this:
"After summer, does spring come or does fall?"
"After summer, does spring come or does fall come?"
"Does spring or fall come, after summer?"
That would be a good English sentence, but it's not an exact translation of the Hebrew because you would need to include מה for a "what" question. I'm happy to report that "Does spring or autumn come after summer?" is now accepted as correct.