...the word order isn't normally like this, though, right? Normally the number comes first? Or is the number one maybe an exception?
The words אחד/אחת always come after the noun. All other numbers come before, like in English.
What does “one cheese” mean? One piece of cheese? One type of cheese? Either way, this phrase is not natural in English.
I have the same question. This really needs to have a natural rather than literal answer - since a literal answer is not literal. There is no such thing as 'a cheese'. It is either a piece of cheese or a block of cheese or a cheese wheel. Or even, as you suggest, a type of cheese, though that seems unlikely in this context.
אחד means one
The word "a" doesn't exist in Hebrew, and is indicated by the lack of the word "the" (ה)
OK, maybe it has to do with my non-native English grammar. I took "a/an" as a synonym for "one". Thanks!
a/an is not exactly a synonym of 'one' as it is in many languages (e.g. French un/une). a/an does imply a singular item, but technically, it is the indefinite article. I would suggest, as airelibre said, that putting אחד in the Hebrew sentence emphasizes the number in much the same way that saying 'one' instead of 'an' does in English.
No, they say ugvina, not o gvina. This is technically the correct pronunciation due to some advanced rules only newsreaders and poets pay attention to, but don't worry about that. Whenever you hear u, just know it is "and", and whenever you want to say "and", just say "ve" as usual, because in casual speech nearly all Israelis do so.