I love how much happier he sounds on the audio here versus the audio on "אין יין"
Is there any close word to arabic for יש ? I'm helping myself as it's my mother tongue and it has many similarities with hebrew. Here with יש i can't really figure out.
I'm studying arabic in Memrise and it says في حمر means 'there's wine'.. If that's correct, then that means יש יין
a.ak.t.j. , I believe you would have to leave out the word: a. (It feels to me that it adds the idea of "some sort of (unspecifically named)" wine. "There is wine!" means to me [Oh goody, there is [some] wine!] *( I did study this, then accidentally wiped out my Hebrew [account?]. I am speaking here, simply, as a linguist.)
Exactly! Using "a wine" in (U.S.) English would often be odd, unless, for example, you're looking for "a good wine" (i.e., a kind of wine that has the characteristics that qualify it as "good wine". Additional examples: "There is a good wine [...]" or "There is a wine that I like from [such-and-such a place].").
One reason that "a wine" is not correct in this case is because it would be functioning as a count noun. In other words, "There is a wine" would generally refer to a (single) instance of "wine" or an instance of "a kind of wine", similar to how ordering "a water" at a restaurant would refer to an instance of "[a glass of] water" (with the focus on the liquid contents). Moreover, because "wine" is such a general term, with so many different kinds, we would normally order a specific kind of wine, such as, "a Chardonnay" (as in "[a glass of] Chardonnay").
In the expression "There is wine" (as opposed to "a wine"), the word "wine" functions as a mass noun, not specifying any single instance or number of wine(s) but merely indicating the presence of the (liquid) substance that has the characteristics of "wine" (that product of fermented grapes). Whether there's a little or a lot, "there is wine"—as KenecxjoGoldberg already stated so clearly ("there's [some] wine" / wine is [in a state of being] present). (I just noticed that this discussion was 9 months ago!)
I should also add that the Hebrew expression יש יין functions similarly in this general context (or lack thereof) and wouldn't seem to warrant a more specific translation than "There is wine".
You don't need to use the article "a" with uncountable nouns in English. This applies to liquids and to things such as bread, rice, porridge, cereal. You need to specify quantity, type etc in order to use "a" with these words.