"Is there more air or water in the world?"
Translation:האם יש יותר אוויר או מים בעולם?
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Just putting it out here:
When speaking casually/colloquially, among friends or even when asking strangers for the time or directions, Hebrew speakers are very likely to omit the word "האם" and simply begin the question with "יש".
Nonetheless, using "האם" is the formal, professional and respectful way to ask questions and should be used in all academic situations, official documents, etc. "האם" might also be used in questions among friends and family when aiming for a more meaningful discussion.
Probably not, because your suggestion is asking about "more air" in the sense of additional air, some extra air compared with what was there before. It must be possible, with some difficulty perhaps, to imagine a scenario in which someone wants to know whether additional air or water is available in the world; I'm sure the ingenuity of Duolingo users in these forums will come up with something.
But it seems much more likely to me that the speaker would be comparing the volume (or maybe the mass?) of air in the world with the amount of water and wondering which is greater. For that kind of "more", we wouldn't use עוד in Hebrew.