In addition to what Almog wrote, גבוהה is pronounced differently to גבוה: gvoha versus gavo'a. And in fact, someone being very punctilious, such as when doing a Torah reading, will pronounce גבוה with an audible final "h" (gavoaH), it's one of the few cases ה is supposed to be pronounced as a consonant rather than a vowel at the end of a word.
As my previous comment hints, it's not an exception from a Biblical Hebrew point of view, since גבוה ends in a consonantal h rather than a vowel e, represented by the letter ה in יפה. Yafe is never yafeH, but gavoa is technically supposed to be gavoaH. It's like נוח noakh נוחה nokha, gavoaH gvoHa.