Trying to access posts about Hard and Soft letter sounds
I am saving this from a sentence discussion, because I don't know how to save the location directly. I hope the two people don't mind. Perhaps Shady_arc could set up a directory of her most helpful posts some day.
"Unrelated, but i was unable to ask on previous question. If a word ends on a consonant, is it hard or soft? Wiki says: soft if followed by soft indicating vowel or soft sign, same rules for hard consonants...
So дом. is m hard or soft?"
"It is "hard" (non-palatalized).
You should understand that unlike English Russian words do not, as a rule, have a zero-ending in singular. In мама the final а is the ending. From here, you can deduce the word is hard-stemmed. In other forms you remove the Nominative ending (i.e. the ending the word has in the dictionary) and attach the ending appropriate for the case you need to form.
A whole class of masculine nouns indeed has a zero ending, i.e. there is no sound after the stem. So the noun is inevitably hard-stemmed provided there isn't any indicator of softness:
if a soft sign is at the end the word is soft-stemmed: контроль, день. if the final consonant is Й, consider the word soft-stemmed: плутоний, буй. if the final consonant is Ж, Ш or Ц, it is "hard" (нож, отец) but consult the spelling rules to learn the correct endings for other forms if the final consonant is Ч or Щ, it is "soft" (луч, овощ, борщ) but consult the spelling rules to learn the correct endings for other forms if the final consonant is Г, К or Х it is "hard" (итог, лук, горох) but consult the spelling rules to learn the correct endings for other forms."
In this discussion, MasterSword83 asks a question that leads to another discussion. https://www.duolingo.com/comment/11581120 Which leads to an answer by AngryPeasant that gives this video on how to pronounce them: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=roevsN1zBl4
Here is the original instructions for hard and soft, I always have to go through each lesson to find it, because I don't remember which lesson it was attached to. Now I can look it up in the discussion search to find it here: https://www.duolingo.com/skill/ru/Basics-2
In this free course, in the 4th level there are videos that are useful to listen to the difference between hard and soft sounds. http://www.memrise.com/course/78454/learn-basic-russian/ They are from the Russian Grammar channel on YouTube
The youtube video you posted is the most helpful one I have ever watched about hard and soft consonant.
and thank you to to AngryPeasant who originally posted the first YouTube video that I listed in response to MasterSword83's question during a sentence discussion listed above. It was so far down the page though and I never remembered which sentence discussion it was in; so I thought it would be nice to have a quicker access by subject. Also, thank you to Ben Whately who created the Memrise course that introduced me to the first YouTube videos which I used before Duolingo even had its Russian course released yet. (I did learn my Russian alphabet there.) Those are all very helpful. I still need to refresh my memory every now and again, since these sounds are so different from what I am used to.